A suplementação de vitamina D aumentou a resposta à terapêutica anti-tuberculose em um estudo randomizado de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar com baciloscopia positiva.

A suplementação de vitamina D aumentou a resposta à terapêutica anti-tuberculose em um estudo randomizado de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar com baciloscopia positiva.

Vitamin D May Speed TB Recovery  34587 By Kristina Fiore, Staff Writer, MedPage Today Published: September 05, 2012 Reviewed by Dori F. Zaleznik, MD; Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston and Dorothy Caputo, MA, BSN, RN, Nurse Planner

 

Action Points  

  • Vitamin D supplementation augmented the response to anti-tuberculous therapy in a randomized trial of patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis.
  • Note that sputum smears cleared more rapidly and inflammatory parameters decreased in the patients receiving vitamin D.

Vitamin D supplementation may bolster the performance of antibiotics in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and accelerate the resolution of inflammatory responses, researchers found. In a randomized, controlled trial, patients who took high-dose vitamin D in addition to anti-tuberculous therapy cleared the bacterium significantly faster than those who took antimicrobials alone (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.79, P=0.04), reported Adrian Martineau, PhD, of Queen Mary University of London, and colleagues in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences online. “Adding vitamin D to antibiotic therapy accelerated sputum smear conversion, augmented treatment-induced increases in lymphocyte count, and enhanced the suppressive effect of treatment on monocyte count, inflammatory markers, and circulating concentrations of chemokines,” they explained. Calcitriol, the active metabolite of vitamin D, has been shown to induce innate antimicrobial responses in vitro, and the vitamin itself was used to treat TB before antibiotics were available. Yet the effects of vitamin D supplementation on immune response in humans hasn’t been well-studied. Martineau and colleagues conducted a longitudinal study of immune response in 95 patients on antimicrobial therapy for smear-positive pulmonary TB. Patients were randomized to adjunctive high-dose vitamin D (four doses of 2.5 mg vitamin D3 every 2 weeks) or placebo. They were assessed for a period of 8 weeks. The group noted that many patients had markedly low vitamin D levels at baseline. The researchers found that patients who had the additional vitamin D cleared Mycobacterium tuberculosis from their sputum faster than those who only had antibiotics. The median time to sputum smear conversion was significantly shorter with vitamin D than among controls (23 days versus 36 days, HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.79, P=0.04). Monocyte counts fell more rapidly (P=0.0003) and lymphocyte counts rose faster (P=0.0364) in patients taking vitamin D, they reported. The vitamin also accelerated the effect of anti-tuberculous therapy on 17 circulating parameters, especially affecting the chemokine CXCL9, with serum concentrations falling significantly faster in patients taking vitamin D. Serum concentrations of three other chemokines — CXCL10, CCL3, and CCL5 — as well as IFN-γ also fell more rapidly in supplemented patients (P≤0.0164 and P=0.0112, respectively). In further analyses, vitamin D also appeared to suppress antigen-stimulated proinflammatory cytokine responses, in particular for IL-1 receptor agonist (IL-1RA), IL-6, IL-12, and TNF (P≤0.0437). On the other hand, it attenuated the suppressive effect of antimicrobial therapy on antigen-stimulated secretion of IL-4, CC chemokine ligand 5, and IFN-α (P≤0.0323), they reported. Martineau and colleagues also observed that vitamin D appeared to have immunomodulatory effects even in patients who had the TT and Tt genotypes of the TaqI VDR polymorphism, suggesting that benefits are not limited to those with the tt genotype, as had been previously reported. They concluded that the findings suggest “a potential role for adjunctive vitamin D supplementation in the treatment of pulmonary infections to accelerate resolution of inflammatory responses associated with increased risk of mortality.” They added that vitamin D may also boost the response to antimicrobial therapy in patients with pneumonia and sepsis. http://www.medpagetoday.com/InfectiousDisease/Tuberculosis/34587 1.    The Vitamin Which Can Cut Your Flu Risk Nearly in Half https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/the-vitamin-which-can-cut-your-flu-risk-nearly-in-half/

2.     20 razões para tomar Vitamina D

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/20-razoes-para-tomar-vitamina-d/

3.    Vitamin D and Health

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/vitamin-d-and-health-2/

4.    Vitamina D – contra envelhecimento e contra a gripe suína

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/23/vitamina-d-contra-envelhecimento-e-contra-a-gripe-suina/

5.     Vitamin D Deficiency – Michael F. Holick, M.D., Ph.D.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/22/vitamin-d-deficiency-michael-f-holick-m-d-ph-d/

6.    Como funciona e qual é a relação entre vitamina D e proteção ao câncer

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/21/como-funciona-e-qual-e-a-relacao-entre-vitamina-d-e-protecao-ao-cancer/

7.     Fatigue and Muscle Weakness From a Vitamin D Deficiency

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/16/fatigue-and-muscle-weakness-from-a-vitamin-d-deficiency/

8.    Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/15/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-levels-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis/

9.    Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra, fundador e Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade, médico neurologista, Phd., M.D., professor na Universidade Federal de São Paulo

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/21/dr-cicero-galli-coimbra-fundador-e-presidente-do-instituto-de-investigacao-e-tratamento-de-autoimunidade-medico-neurologista-phd-m-d-professor-na-universidade-federal-de-sao-paulo/

  1. 10.   Estudo randomizado de suplementação de vitamina D para prevenir a gripe sazonal A em crianças em idade escolar – Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/29/estudo-randomizado-de-suplementacao-de-vitamina-d-para-prevenir-a-gripe-sazonal-a-em-criancas-em-idade-escolar-randomized-trial-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-to-prevent-seasonal-influenza-a-in-school/ 11. É preciso reconhecer os sintomas da deficiência de vitamina D, o hormonio esteroide imunoregulador https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/29/e-preciso-reconhecer-os-sintomas-da-deficiencia-de-vitamina-d-o-hormonio-esteroide-imunoregulador/

 

 

1.       Vitamina D e doenças causadas pela deficiência

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/06/04/vitamina-d-e-doencas-causadas-pela-deficiencia/

  1. The Vitamin Which Can Cut Your Flu Risk Nearly in Half

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/the-vitamin-which-can-cut-your-flu-risk-nearly-in-half/

 

3.       20 razões para tomar Vitamina D

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/20-razoes-para-tomar-vitamina-d/

 

4.       Vitamin D and Health

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/vitamin-d-and-health-2/

 

5.       Vitamina D – contra envelhecimento e contra a gripe suína

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/23/vitamina-d-contra-envelhecimento-e-contra-a-gripe-suina/

 

6.       Vitamin D Deficiency – Michael F. Holick, M.D., Ph.D.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/22/vitamin-d-deficiency-michael-f-holick-m-d-ph-d/

 

7.       Como funciona e qual é a relação entre vitamina D e proteção ao câncer

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/21/como-funciona-e-qual-e-a-relacao-entre-vitamina-d-e-protecao-ao-cancer/

 

8.       Fatigue and Muscle Weakness From a Vitamin D Deficiency

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/16/fatigue-and-muscle-weakness-from-a-vitamin-d-deficiency/

 

9.       Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/15/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-levels-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis/

 

10.   Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra, fundador e Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade, médico neurologista, Phd., M.D., professor na Universidade Federal de São Paulo

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/21/dr-cicero-galli-coimbra-fundador-e-presidente-do-instituto-de-investigacao-e-tratamento-de-autoimunidade-medico-neurologista-phd-m-d-professor-na-universidade-federal-de-sao-paulo/

 

  1. Estudo randomizado de suplementação de vitamina D para prevenir a gripe sazonal A em crianças em idade escolar – Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/29/estudo-randomizado-de-suplementacao-de-vitamina-d-para-prevenir-a-gripe-sazonal-a-em-criancas-em-idade-escolar-randomized-trial-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-to-prevent-seasonal-influenza-a-in-school/

 

  1. É preciso reconhecer os sintomas da deficiência de vitamina D, o hormonio esteroide imunoregulador

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/29/e-preciso-reconhecer-os-sintomas-da-deficiencia-de-vitamina-d-o-hormonio-esteroide-imunoregulador/

 

13.   A suplementação de vitamina D aumentou a resposta à terapêutica anti-tuberculose em um estudo randomizado de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar com baciloscopia positiva.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/30/a-suplementacao-de-vitamina-d-aumentou-a-resposta-a-terapeutica-anti-tuberculose-em-um-estudo-randomizado-de-pacientes-com-tuberculose-pulmonar-com-baciloscopia-positiva/

 

14.   Estudo controlado randomizado mostra ligação entre a vitamina D e rinite alérgica

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/01/estudo-controlado-randomizado-mostra-ligacao-entre-a-vitamina-d-e-rinite-alergica/

 

15.   A pilot study assessing the effect of prolonged administration of high daily doses of vitamin D on the clinical course of vitiligo and psoriasis

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/06/01/a-pilot-study-assessing-the-effect-of-prolonged-administration-of-high-daily-doses-of-vitamin-d-on-the-clinical-course-of-vitiligo-and-psoriasis/

15 . Traumatic Brain Injury and Aging: Is a Combination of Progesterone and Vitamin D Hormone a Simple Solution to a Complex Problem?

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/06/02/traumatic-brain-injury-and-aging-is-a-combination-of-progesterone-and-vitamin-d-hormone-a-simple-solution-to-a-complex-problem/

16. O que você não sabe ou reconhece pode prejudicar a sua saúde

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/31/o-que-voce-nao-sabe-ou-reconhece-pode-prejudicar-a-sua-saude/

17.  Câncer de mama: a vitamina D ou mastectomia

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/30/cancer-de-mama-a-vitamina-d-ou-mastectomia/

18.  A vitamina D supera a vacina contra a gripe

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/30/a-vitamina-d-supera-a-vacina-contra-a-gripe/

19.  Não patenteiem meus genes! Liberem os genes do câncer da mama!

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/30/nao-patenteiem-meus-genes-liberem-os-genes-do-cancer-da-mama/

20.  Existe terapêutica natural e de baixo custo para doenças autoimunitárias. Depoimentos de pacientes com esclerose múltipla. Vitamina D – Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra, PhD, MD.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/26/existe-terapeutica-natural-e-de-baixo-custo-para-doencas-autoimunitarias-depoimentos-de-pacientes-com-esclerose-multipla-vitamina-d-dr-cicero-galli-coimbra-phd-md/

21.  Vitamina D – Por uma outra terapia (p/ a esclerose múltipla) e todas as doenças autoimunes

https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=erAgu1XcY-U

  1. Vitamina D pode revolucionar o tratamento da esclerose múltipla*

http://biodireitomedicina.wordpress.com/category/doencas-autoimunes/

  1. POR UM NOVO PARADIGMA DE CONDUTA E TRATAMENTO http://www.institutodeautoimunidade.org.br/novo-paradigma.html

Por Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra Médico Internista e Neurologista, Professor Associado Livre-Docente da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Fundador e Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade  

24.  Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra – Doenças Autoimunes e Vitamina D

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4uJt1361aGw

 

25.  Mais de 10 anos de tratamento com a Vitamina D – Exijam que seus médicos se atualizem!

http://biodireitomedicina.wordpress.com/2012/12/23/mais-de-10-anos-de-tratamento-com-a-vitamina-d-exija-que-seus-medicos-se-atualizem/  – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fQN32qR_M2Y

 

26.  POR 30 ANOS, EXTENSA REVISÃO DE TODA A PESQUISA ANTERIOR CONFIRMA QUE BAIXO NÍVEL DE VITAMINA D É UMA SENTENÇA DE MORTE

http://biodireitomedicina.wordpress.com/2013/02/14/vitamina-d-reportagem-com-dr-cicero-galli-coimbra-e-daniel-cunha-na-rede-record/

 

27.  “As doses diárias de 10.000 unidades de colecalciferol devem ser tomadas por todas pessoas. Essa quantidade previne todas as doenças inclusive à autoimunidade. Com 10.000 unidades a pessoa sai da deficiencia de vitamina D. A dose de 1.000 unidades não tira as pessoas da deficiencia de vitamina D.’’ – Dr. Cicero Galli Coimbra, medico neurologista, Phd., professor na Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/01/21/as-doses-diarias-de-10-000-unidades-de-colecalciferol-devem-ser-tomadas-por-todas-pessoas-essa-quantidade-previne-todas-as-doencas-inclusive-a-autoimunidade-com-10-000-unidades-a-pessoa-sai/

28.  Entrevistas com Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra sobre o hormônio-vitamina D

http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLeqEGmvbpULN2NfNfnLU6bYse4fp9alQS

  1. Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra – Esclerose múltipla e o tratamento com a vitamina D – 28.01.13 – TV Mundi

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/02/03/dr-cicero-galli-coimbra-esclerose-multipla-e-o-tratamento-com-a-vitamina-d-28-01-13-tv-mundi/

  1. Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra – Esclerose múltipla e o tratamento com a vitamina D – 28.01.13 – TV Mundi

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hv6tD3B0Nlo&list=PLeqEGmvbpULNrc8biL5LF9Mp3-WbJT2Ao

http://www.youtube.com/watch?list=PLeqEGmvbpULNrc8biL5LF9Mp3-WbJT2Ao&feature=player_detailpage&v=hv6tD3B0Nlo

  1. “As doses diárias de 10.000 unidades de colecalciferol devem ser tomadas por todas pessoas. Essa quantidade previne todas as doenças inclusive à autoimunidade. Com 10.000 unidades a pessoa sai da deficiencia de vitamina D. A dose de 1.000 unidades não tira as pessoas da deficiencia de vitamina D.’’ – Dr. Cicero Galli Coimbra, medico neurologista, Phd., professor na Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/01/21/as-doses-diarias-de-10-000-unidades-de-colecalciferol-devem-ser-tomadas-por-todas-pessoas-essa-quantidade-previne-todas-as-doencas-inclusive-a-autoimunidade-com-10-000-unidades-a-pessoa-sai/

 

32.  A responsabilidade Civil e Criminal Médica na Desinformação às pessoas – Revista VEJA, 2.304: “O que você não sabe sobre a Vitamina do Sol. Ela continua a surpreender a medicina com novos efeitos benéficos.”

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/25/a-responsabilidade-civil-e-criminal-medica-na-desinformacao-as-pessoas-revista-veja-2-304-o-que-voce-nao-sabe-sobre-a-vitamina-do-sol-ela-continua-a-surpreender-a-medicina-com-novos-efe/

 

33.  Vitamina D: A Desinformação Médica e o Direito à Informação do Cidadão

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/25/vitamina-d-a-desinformacao-medica-e-o-direito-a-informacao-do-cidadao-2/

34.  A suplementação de vitamina D aumentou a resposta à terapêutica anti-tuberculose em um estudo randomizado de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar com baciloscopia positiva.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/30/a-suplementacao-de-vitamina-d-aumentou-a-resposta-a-terapeutica-anti-tuberculose-em-um-estudo-randomizado-de-pacientes-com-tuberculose-pulmonar-com-baciloscopia-positiva/

 

35.  Estudo randomizado de suplementação de vitamina D para prevenir a gripe sazonal A em crianças em idade escolar – Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/29/estudo-randomizado-de-suplementacao-de-vitamina-d-para-prevenir-a-gripe-sazonal-a-em-criancas-em-idade-escolar-randomized-trial-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-to-prevent-seasonal-influenza-a-in-school/

 

  1. É preciso reconhecer os sintomas da deficiência de vitamina D, o hormonio esteroide imunoregulador

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/29/e-preciso-reconhecer-os-sintomas-da-deficiencia-de-vitamina-d-o-hormonio-esteroide-imunoregula

  1. The Vitamin Which Can Cut Your Flu Risk Nearly in Half

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/the-vitamin-which-can-cut-your-flu-risk-nearly-in-half/

 

  1. 20 razões para tomar Vitamina D

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/20-razoes-para-tomar-vitamina-d/

  1. Vitamin D and Health

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/vitamin-d-and-health-2/

  1. Vitamina D – contra envelhecimento e contra a gripe suína

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/23/vitamina-d-contra-envelhecimento-e-contra-a-gripe-suina/

  1. Vitamin D Deficiency – Michael F. Holick, M.D., Ph.D.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/22/vitamin-d-deficiency-michael-f-holick-m-d-ph-d/

  1. Como funciona e qual é a relação entre vitamina D e proteção ao câncer

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/21/como-funciona-e-qual-e-a-relacao-entre-vitamina-d-e-protecao-ao-cancer/

  1. Fatigue and Muscle Weakness From a Vitamin D Deficiency

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/16/fatigue-and-muscle-weakness-from-a-vitamin-d-deficiency/

  1. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/15/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-levels-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis/

  1. Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra, fundador e Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade, médico neurologista, Phd., M.D., professor na Universidade Federal de São Paulo

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/21/dr-cicero-galli-coimbra-fundador-e-presidente-do-instituto-de-investigacao-e-tratamento-de-autoimunidade-medico-neurologista-phd-m-d-professor-na-universidade-federal-de-sao-paulo/

—–

Estudo randomizado de suplementação de vitamina D para prevenir a gripe sazonal A em crianças em idade escolar – Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren

vitamin%20D%20studyEstudo randomizado de suplementação de vitamina D para prevenir a gripe sazonal A em crianças em idade escolar – Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren


The American Journal of Clinical Nutritionajcn.nutrition.org

  1. First published March 10, 2010, doi: 10.3945/​ajcn.2009.29094  Am J Clin Nutr May 2010 ajcn.29094
  • © 2010 American Society for Nutrition

Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren1,2,3

  1. Mitsuyoshi Urashima,
  2. Takaaki Segawa,
  3. Minoru Okazaki,
  4. Mana Kurihara,
  5. Yasuyuki Wada, and
  6. Hiroyuki Ida

+ Author Affiliations

  1. 1From the Division of Molecular Epidemiology (MU)the Department of Pediatrics (MU YWHI) Jikei University School of Medicine Minato-ku Tokyo Japan; the Department of Pediatrics Fuji City General Hospital Shizuoka Japan (TS); the Department of Pediatrics Sado General Hospital Sado City Niigata Japan (MO);the Department of Pediatrics Kanagawa Rehabilitation Center Kanagawa Japan (MK).

+ Author Notes

  • 2 Supported by the Jikei University School of Medicine.
  • 3 Address correspondence to M Urashima, Division of Molecular Epidemiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Nishi-shimbashi 3-25-8, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461, Japan. E-mail: urashima@jikei.ac.jp.

Abstract

Background: To our knowledge, no rigorously designed clinical trials have evaluated the relation between vitamin D and physician-diagnosed seasonal influenza.

Objective: We investigated the effect of vitamin D supplements on the incidence of seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren.

Design: From December 2008 through March 2009, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing vitamin D3 supplements (1200 IU/d) with placebo in schoolchildren. The primary outcome was the incidence of influenza A, diagnosed with influenza antigen testing with a nasopharyngeal swab specimen.

Results: Influenza A occurred in 18 of 167 (10.8%) children in the vitamin D3 group compared with 31 of 167 (18.6%) children in the placebo group [relative risk (RR), 0.58; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.99; P = 0.04]. The reduction in influenza A was more prominent in children who had not been taking other vitamin D supplements (RR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.17, 0.79; P = 0.006) and who started nursery school after age 3 y (RR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.17, 0.78; P = 0.005). In children with a previous diagnosis of asthma, asthma attacks as a secondary outcome occurred in 2 children receiving vitamin D3 compared with 12 children receiving placebo (RR: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.73; P = 0.006).

Conclusion: This study suggests that vitamin D3 supplementation during the winter may reduce the incidence of influenza A, especially in specific subgroups of schoolchildren. This trial was registered at https://center.umin.ac.jp as UMIN000001373.

  • Received December 17, 2009.
  • Accepted February 11, 2010.

Articles citing this article

É preciso reconhecer os sintomas da deficiência de vitamina D, o hormonio esteroide imunoregulador

317853_345790278850356_1694943354_nÉ preciso reconhecer os sintomas da deficiência de vitamina D, o hormonio esteroide imunoregulador

Tomar vitamina D ainda jovem também é bom para o corpo a longo prazo.  Resultados de um estudo realizado pela Universidade de Zurique confirmou que quantidades adequadas de vitamina D tomadas de forma consistente são necessárias para manter a saúde dos ossos.

Muitas pessoas acreditam que a manutenção de hábitos alimentares saudáveis é o suficiente, mas apenas poucos alimentos naturalmente contêm níveis significativos de vitamina D. Segundo o Dr. Heike A. Bischoff-Ferrari, uma faculdade de Uzh, a fim de obter níveis adequados de vitamina D através da alimentação, duas porções de peixes gordurosos como salmão ou cavala teriam que ser consumidas todos os dias. Mesmo assim, comer peixe não é o suficiente para alcançar a quantidade diária necessária de colecalciferol no sangue.

É, portanto, necessário aumentar os níveis de vitamina D no organismo através da exposição solar e da suplementação, a fim de utilizar todo o potencial que a vitamina do sol pode proporcionar para manter o funcionamento apropriado do corpo.

Este equívoco sobre a manutenção de níveis séricos de vitamina D através da alimentação – a crença apenas no alimento como principal fonte de Vit D, caiu por terra há mais de 40 anos -, já que a Vit D não é uma autentica vitamina e a quantidade deste hormonio esteroide contida nos alimentos é insignificante comparada à quantidade de colecalciferol que nosso organismo necessita para manter em ótimo estado e regulado o sistema imune.

 

 NÓS PRECISAMOS DE 10.000 UI (10.000 UNIDADES INTERNACIONAIS OU 10 NANOGRAMAS) DE VITAMINA D POR DIA, TODOS OS DIAS.

Nós precisamos dessa quantidade, precisamos 10.000 ui de vitamina D, todos os dias. Avisa Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra:

 

  • “Se a natureza não precisasse de 10.000 unidades todo o dia, não formava uma quantidade tão grande em tão poucos minutos.”

 

  • “Em 30 minutos, com uma boa parte da pele exposta ao sol, a pele produz 10.000 unidades do pro-hormônio imunoregulador, a vitamina D”.

 

  •  “É praticamente um pré-requisito ter a deficiencia de vitamina D para poder desenvolver essa doença”, autoimune, esclerose múltipla, ou outras doenças.

 

  •  “A medida adequada, no sangue, determinada pela SOCIEDADE INTERNACIONAL DE ENDOCRINOLOGIA, é de 40 ng/ml (nanogramas por mililitro) de sangue. Esta é a medida para uma pessoa com saúde normal.”

◊ Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra

Vitamina D – Sem Censura – Dr. Cicero Galli Coimbra

“POR UM NOVO PARADIGMA DE CONDUTA E TRATAMENTO” –  “Estamos vivendo uma defasagem entre o conhecimento científico e a prática médica” – Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra, medico neurologista, Phd., MD, professor na Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade

  • ◊ Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra, Phd., MD, é médico graduado pela Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (1979), possui título de especialista em medicina interna (1981) e neurologia (1985) pelo Jackson Memorial Hospital da Universidade de Miami, EUA. Obteve o título de mestre (1988) e doutor (1991) em Neurologia pela Universidade Federal de São Paulo e pós-doutorado (1993) pela Universidade de Lund, Suécia. Atualmente é Professor Livre Docente do Departamento de Neurologia e Neurocirurgia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, onde dirige o Laboratório de Fisiopatologia Clínica e Experimental. Atua na área de Medicina (Neurologia e Clínica Médica), com ênfase em doenças neurodegenerativas e autoimunitárias.

 

 

Para executar muitas funções, a vitamina D trabalha em cooperação com outras vitaminas tais como magnésio, que podem ser encontrados em vegetais de folhas verdes tais como espinafre.  Esta característica única da vitamina D tem contribuído para a gestão de várias doenças crónicas.

 

“No mundo urbano moderno, infelizmente, o trabalho e a vida se desenvolvem entre 4 paredes. Todas as atividades são desenvolvidas em ambientes fechados, longe do sol, inclusive a diversão, seja por falta de tempo seja para fugir da violência, as pessoas já não se expõem ao sol” .

Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra, Phd., MD

 

AS MUITAS FACES DE VITAMINA D

Décadas atrás, os profissionais de saúde imaginavam que a vitamina D só funcionava para manter os ossos e os dentes saudáveis.  Os recentes avanços na ciência, no entanto, têm colocado esta vitamina no centro das atenções ao revelar o seu papel fundamental multifacetado para o bom funcionamento do corpo humano e sua capacidade de reduzir o risco de doenças anteriormente não associadas e curar.

Apesar das revelações desde a década de 60 sobre o potencial da vitamina D, parece que nem todo mundo gosta dessa descoberta, seja na indústria farmacêutica seja entre gestores da medicina.

O atual estilo de vida dentro de 4 paredes, trabalho, sem contato da pele com a luz solar, tem contribuído para o crescente número de casos de deficiência de vitamina D em todo o mundo.  Esta situação é agravada pelo fato de que nem todo mundo é consciente de que (ele ou ela) pode ser deficiente de vitamina D.

SOU DEFICIÊNCIA DE VITAMINA D?

A melhor maneira de descobrir a deficiência de vitamina D é fazer um exame de sangue – o 25(OH)D3 , que vai medir o nível da vitamina no sangue.  Você pode perguntar ao seu médico para administrar o teste ou comprar um kit de teste e fazer o teste em casa você mesmo.  No entanto, você certamente é deficiente em vitamina D se você tiver qualquer um dos seguintes sintomas, e você precisa consultar com seu médico a respeito de seu tratamento preventivo, bem como o curativo,  o mais rápido possível.

1) A GRIPE -. Em um estudo publicado nos jornais de Cambridge, descobriu-se que a deficiência de vitamina D predispõe as crianças a doenças respiratórias.  Um estudo realizado de intervenção mostrou que a vitamina D reduz a incidência de infecções respiratórias em crianças e adultos.

2) A FRAQUEZA MUSCULAR – De acordo com Michael F. Holick, líder especialista em vitamina D, fraqueza muscular geralmente é causada pela deficiência de vitamina D no sangue. Isto é assim porque para os músculos esqueléticos funcionarem corretamente, seus receptores de vitamina D devem ser mantidos em nível adequado.

3) PSORIASIS -. Num estudo publicado pelo PubMed UK central, descobriu-se que os análogos sintéticos da vitamina D, trata-se da suplementação para normalizar os níveis séricos, foram uteis no tratamento da psoríase.

4) A DOENÇA RENAL CRÔNICA – De acordo com Holick, pacientes com doenças renais crônicas avançadas (especialmente aqueles que necessitam de diálise) são incapazes de fazer a forma ativa da vitamina D. Estas pessoas precisam tomar 1,25-hidroxivitamina D3 ou um dos seus calcemicos análogos para realizar o metabolismo do cálcio, diminuir o risco de doença óssea renal e regular os níveis de hormona paratiroidal.

5) DIABETES -. Um estudo conduzido na Finlândia foi destaque na Lancet.com em que 10.366 crianças receberam 2.000 unidades internacionais (UI) de vitamina D3 por dia durante o seu primeiro ano de vida.  As crianças foram monitorizadas durante 31 anos e em todas elas, o risco de diabetes de tipo 1 foi reduzida em 80 por cento.

6) ASMA -. Vitamina D pode reduzir a gravidade dos ataques de asma.  Pesquisa realizada no Japão revelaram que os ataques de asma em crianças em idade escolar foram significativamente reduzidos nos indivíduos que tomam um suplemento de vitamina D diário de 1.200 UI por dia.

7) A DOENÇA PERIODONTAL – Aqueles que sofrem desta doença gengival crônica que causa inchaço e sangramento nas gengivas devem considerar seus níveis de vitamina D para a produção de defensinas e catelicidina, compostos que contêm propriedades microbianas e mantem menor o número de bactérias na boca.

8) A DOENÇA CARDIOVASCULAR – insuficiência cardíaca congestiva está associada à deficiência de vitamina D.  Pesquisa realizada na Universidade de Harvard entre enfermeiras descobriram que as mulheres com baixos níveis de vitamina D (17 ng / ml [42 nmol / L]) tiveram um aumento de 67 por cento de risco de desenvolver hipertensão.

9) ESQUIZOFRENIA E DEPRESSÃO -. Estes distúrbios têm sido associados à deficiência de vitamina D. Num estudo, verificou-se que a manutenção de suficiente vitamina D entre as mulheres grávidas e durante a infância era necessário para satisfazer integralmente o receptor da vitamina D no cérebro para o seu desenvolvimento e manutenção da função mental mais tarde na vida.

10) CÂNCER – Pesquisadores da Georgetown University Medical Center, em Washington DC descobriram uma conexão entre a alta ingestão de vitamina D e risco reduzido de câncer de mama.  Estas descobertas, apresentadas na Associação Americana para Pesquisa do Câncer, revelou que doses elevadas de vitamina do sol estavam ligadas a uma redução de 75 por cento no crescimento do câncer em geral e 50 por cento de redução em casos de tumores entre aqueles que já têm a doença.  De interesse foi a capacidade da suplementação de vitamina D para ajudar a controlar o desenvolvimento e o crescimento do câncer de mama, especialmente estrógeno-sensível.

PREVENÇÃO

Estas diferentes condições de saúde associados com a deficiência de vitamina D não precisam ser algo a temer.  Uma abordagem pró-ativa da vitamina D pode ajudar na prevenção de muitas doenças crônicas associadas à deficiência de vitamina D.  Por outro lado, milhares de dólares podem ser salvos, para não mencionar a paz de espírito, simplesmente com o custo zero de fazer um passeio sob o sol.  Guardar os guarda-chuvas para os dias chuvosos.

http://journals.cambridge.org

http://www.vitamindcouncil.com

http://www.naturalnews.com/032222_breast_cancer_vitamin_D.html

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The 10 symptoms of vitamin D deficiency you need to recognize by: Aurora Geib
Learn more: http://www.naturalnews.com/035089_vitamin_D_deficiency_signs_symptoms.html#ixzz2RrnZMkE4Learn

LEIA MAIS SOBRE DEFICIENCIA DE VITAMINA D:

  • Perda de apetite
  • Sensação de queimação na garganta & boca
  • Diarreia continua
  • Insônia
  • Problemas visuais
  • Perda de peso
  • Perda excessiva de cabelo

 

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/the-vitamin-which-can-cut-your-flu-risk-nearly-in-half/

·       20 razões para tomar Vitamina D

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/20-razoes-para-tomar-vitamina-d/

·       Vitamin D and Health

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/vitamin-d-and-health-2/

·       Vitamina D – contra envelhecimento e contra a gripe suína

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/23/vitamina-d-contra-envelhecimento-e-contra-a-gripe-suina/

·       Vitamin D Deficiency – Michael F. Holick, M.D., Ph.D.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/22/vitamin-d-deficiency-michael-f-holick-m-d-ph-d/

·       Como funciona e qual é a relação entre vitamina D e proteção ao câncer

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/21/como-funciona-e-qual-e-a-relacao-entre-vitamina-d-e-protecao-ao-cancer/

·       Fatigue and Muscle Weakness From a Vitamin D Deficiency

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/16/fatigue-and-muscle-weakness-from-a-vitamin-d-deficiency/

·       Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/15/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-levels-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis/

·       Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra, fundador e Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade, médico neurologista, Phd., M.D., professor na Universidade Federal de São Paulo

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/21/dr-cicero-galli-coimbra-fundador-e-presidente-do-instituto-de-investigacao-e-tratamento-de-autoimunidade-medico-neurologista-phd-m-d-professor-na-universidade-federal-de-sao-paulo/

────

1.       Vitamina D e doenças causadas pela deficiência

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/06/04/vitamina-d-e-doencas-causadas-pela-deficiencia/

  1. The Vitamin Which Can Cut Your Flu Risk Nearly in Half

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/the-vitamin-which-can-cut-your-flu-risk-nearly-in-half/

 

3.       20 razões para tomar Vitamina D

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/20-razoes-para-tomar-vitamina-d/

 

4.       Vitamin D and Health

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/vitamin-d-and-health-2/

 

5.       Vitamina D – contra envelhecimento e contra a gripe suína

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/23/vitamina-d-contra-envelhecimento-e-contra-a-gripe-suina/

 

6.       Vitamin D Deficiency – Michael F. Holick, M.D., Ph.D.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/22/vitamin-d-deficiency-michael-f-holick-m-d-ph-d/

 

7.       Como funciona e qual é a relação entre vitamina D e proteção ao câncer

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/21/como-funciona-e-qual-e-a-relacao-entre-vitamina-d-e-protecao-ao-cancer/

 

8.       Fatigue and Muscle Weakness From a Vitamin D Deficiency

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/16/fatigue-and-muscle-weakness-from-a-vitamin-d-deficiency/

 

9.       Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/15/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-levels-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis/

 

10.   Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra, fundador e Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade, médico neurologista, Phd., M.D., professor na Universidade Federal de São Paulo

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/21/dr-cicero-galli-coimbra-fundador-e-presidente-do-instituto-de-investigacao-e-tratamento-de-autoimunidade-medico-neurologista-phd-m-d-professor-na-universidade-federal-de-sao-paulo/

 

  1. Estudo randomizado de suplementação de vitamina D para prevenir a gripe sazonal A em crianças em idade escolar – Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/29/estudo-randomizado-de-suplementacao-de-vitamina-d-para-prevenir-a-gripe-sazonal-a-em-criancas-em-idade-escolar-randomized-trial-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-to-prevent-seasonal-influenza-a-in-school/

 

  1. É preciso reconhecer os sintomas da deficiência de vitamina D, o hormonio esteroide imunoregulador

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/29/e-preciso-reconhecer-os-sintomas-da-deficiencia-de-vitamina-d-o-hormonio-esteroide-imunoregulador/

 

13.   A suplementação de vitamina D aumentou a resposta à terapêutica anti-tuberculose em um estudo randomizado de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar com baciloscopia positiva.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/30/a-suplementacao-de-vitamina-d-aumentou-a-resposta-a-terapeutica-anti-tuberculose-em-um-estudo-randomizado-de-pacientes-com-tuberculose-pulmonar-com-baciloscopia-positiva/

 

14.   Estudo controlado randomizado mostra ligação entre a vitamina D e rinite alérgica

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/01/estudo-controlado-randomizado-mostra-ligacao-entre-a-vitamina-d-e-rinite-alergica/

 

15.   A pilot study assessing the effect of prolonged administration of high daily doses of vitamin D on the clinical course of vitiligo and psoriasis

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/06/01/a-pilot-study-assessing-the-effect-of-prolonged-administration-of-high-daily-doses-of-vitamin-d-on-the-clinical-course-of-vitiligo-and-psoriasis/

15 . Traumatic Brain Injury and Aging: Is a Combination of Progesterone and Vitamin D Hormone a Simple Solution to a Complex Problem?

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/06/02/traumatic-brain-injury-and-aging-is-a-combination-of-progesterone-and-vitamin-d-hormone-a-simple-solution-to-a-complex-problem/

16. O que você não sabe ou reconhece pode prejudicar a sua saúde

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/31/o-que-voce-nao-sabe-ou-reconhece-pode-prejudicar-a-sua-saude/

17.  Câncer de mama: a vitamina D ou mastectomia

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/30/cancer-de-mama-a-vitamina-d-ou-mastectomia/

18.  A vitamina D supera a vacina contra a gripe

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/30/a-vitamina-d-supera-a-vacina-contra-a-gripe/

19.  Não patenteiem meus genes! Liberem os genes do câncer da mama!

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/30/nao-patenteiem-meus-genes-liberem-os-genes-do-cancer-da-mama/

20.  Existe terapêutica natural e de baixo custo para doenças autoimunitárias. Depoimentos de pacientes com esclerose múltipla. Vitamina D – Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra, PhD, MD.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/26/existe-terapeutica-natural-e-de-baixo-custo-para-doencas-autoimunitarias-depoimentos-de-pacientes-com-esclerose-multipla-vitamina-d-dr-cicero-galli-coimbra-phd-md/

21.  Vitamina D – Por uma outra terapia (p/ a esclerose múltipla) e todas as doenças autoimunes

https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=erAgu1XcY-U

  1. Vitamina D pode revolucionar o tratamento da esclerose múltipla*

http://biodireitomedicina.wordpress.com/category/doencas-autoimunes/

  1. POR UM NOVO PARADIGMA DE CONDUTA E TRATAMENTO http://www.institutodeautoimunidade.org.br/novo-paradigma.html

Por Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra Médico Internista e Neurologista, Professor Associado Livre-Docente da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Fundador e Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade  

24.  Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra – Doenças Autoimunes e Vitamina D

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4uJt1361aGw

25.  Mais de 10 anos de tratamento com a Vitamina D – Exijam que seus médicos se atualizem!

http://biodireitomedicina.wordpress.com/2012/12/23/mais-de-10-anos-de-tratamento-com-a-vitamina-d-exija-que-seus-medicos-se-atualizem/  – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fQN32qR_M2Y

 

26.  POR 30 ANOS, EXTENSA REVISÃO DE TODA A PESQUISA ANTERIOR CONFIRMA QUE BAIXO NÍVEL DE VITAMINA D É UMA SENTENÇA DE MORTE

http://biodireitomedicina.wordpress.com/2013/02/14/vitamina-d-reportagem-com-dr-cicero-galli-coimbra-e-daniel-cunha-na-rede-record/

27.  “As doses diárias de 10.000 unidades de colecalciferol devem ser tomadas por todas pessoas. Essa quantidade previne todas as doenças inclusive à autoimunidade. Com 10.000 unidades a pessoa sai da deficiencia de vitamina D. A dose de 1.000 unidades não tira as pessoas da deficiencia de vitamina D.’’ – Dr. Cicero Galli Coimbra, medico neurologista, Phd., professor na Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/01/21/as-doses-diarias-de-10-000-unidades-de-colecalciferol-devem-ser-tomadas-por-todas-pessoas-essa-quantidade-previne-todas-as-doencas-inclusive-a-autoimunidade-com-10-000-unidades-a-pessoa-sai/

28.  Entrevistas com Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra sobre o hormônio-vitamina D

http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLeqEGmvbpULN2NfNfnLU6bYse4fp9alQS

  1. Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra – Esclerose múltipla e o tratamento com a vitamina D – 28.01.13 – TV Mundi

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/02/03/dr-cicero-galli-coimbra-esclerose-multipla-e-o-tratamento-com-a-vitamina-d-28-01-13-tv-mundi/

  1. Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra – Esclerose múltipla e o tratamento com a vitamina D – 28.01.13 – TV Mundi

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hv6tD3B0Nlo&list=PLeqEGmvbpULNrc8biL5LF9Mp3-WbJT2Ao

http://www.youtube.com/watch?list=PLeqEGmvbpULNrc8biL5LF9Mp3-WbJT2Ao&feature=player_detailpage&v=hv6tD3B0Nlo

  1. “As doses diárias de 10.000 unidades de colecalciferol devem ser tomadas por todas pessoas. Essa quantidade previne todas as doenças inclusive à autoimunidade. Com 10.000 unidades a pessoa sai da deficiencia de vitamina D. A dose de 1.000 unidades não tira as pessoas da deficiencia de vitamina D.’’ – Dr. Cicero Galli Coimbra, medico neurologista, Phd., professor na Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/01/21/as-doses-diarias-de-10-000-unidades-de-colecalciferol-devem-ser-tomadas-por-todas-pessoas-essa-quantidade-previne-todas-as-doencas-inclusive-a-autoimunidade-com-10-000-unidades-a-pessoa-sai/

32.  A responsabilidade Civil e Criminal Médica na Desinformação às pessoas – Revista VEJA, 2.304: “O que você não sabe sobre a Vitamina do Sol. Ela continua a surpreender a medicina com novos efeitos benéficos.”

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/25/a-responsabilidade-civil-e-criminal-medica-na-desinformacao-as-pessoas-revista-veja-2-304-o-que-voce-nao-sabe-sobre-a-vitamina-do-sol-ela-continua-a-surpreender-a-medicina-com-novos-efe/

33.  Vitamina D: A Desinformação Médica e o Direito à Informação do Cidadão

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/25/vitamina-d-a-desinformacao-medica-e-o-direito-a-informacao-do-cidadao-2/

34.  A suplementação de vitamina D aumentou a resposta à terapêutica anti-tuberculose em um estudo randomizado de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar com baciloscopia positiva.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/30/a-suplementacao-de-vitamina-d-aumentou-a-resposta-a-terapeutica-anti-tuberculose-em-um-estudo-randomizado-de-pacientes-com-tuberculose-pulmonar-com-baciloscopia-positiva/

35.  Estudo randomizado de suplementação de vitamina D para prevenir a gripe sazonal A em crianças em idade escolar – Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/29/estudo-randomizado-de-suplementacao-de-vitamina-d-para-prevenir-a-gripe-sazonal-a-em-criancas-em-idade-escolar-randomized-trial-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-to-prevent-seasonal-influenza-a-in-school/

  1. É preciso reconhecer os sintomas da deficiência de vitamina D, o hormonio esteroide imunoregulador

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/29/e-preciso-reconhecer-os-sintomas-da-deficiencia-de-vitamina-d-o-hormonio-esteroide-imunoregula

  1. The Vitamin Which Can Cut Your Flu Risk Nearly in Half

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/the-vitamin-which-can-cut-your-flu-risk-nearly-in-half/

 

  1. 20 razões para tomar Vitamina D

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/20-razoes-para-tomar-vitamina-d/

  1. Vitamin D and Health

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/vitamin-d-and-health-2/

  1. Vitamina D – contra envelhecimento e contra a gripe suína

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/23/vitamina-d-contra-envelhecimento-e-contra-a-gripe-suina/

  1. Vitamin D Deficiency – Michael F. Holick, M.D., Ph.D.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/22/vitamin-d-deficiency-michael-f-holick-m-d-ph-d/

  1. Como funciona e qual é a relação entre vitamina D e proteção ao câncer

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/21/como-funciona-e-qual-e-a-relacao-entre-vitamina-d-e-protecao-ao-cancer/

  1. Fatigue and Muscle Weakness From a Vitamin D Deficiency

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/16/fatigue-and-muscle-weakness-from-a-vitamin-d-deficiency/

  1. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/15/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-levels-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis/

  1. Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra, fundador e Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade, médico neurologista, Phd., M.D., professor na Universidade Federal de São Paulo

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/21/dr-cicero-galli-coimbra-fundador-e-presidente-do-instituto-de-investigacao-e-tratamento-de-autoimunidade-medico-neurologista-phd-m-d-professor-na-universidade-federal-de-sao-paulo/

 

 

The Vitamin Which Can Cut Your Flu Risk Nearly in Half

The Vitamin Which Can Cut Your Flu Risk Nearly in Half

 vitamin_d_sources
Video
December 14, 2011 | 
By Dr. Mercola

According to the findings from a 2010 study that didn’t get any widespread attention, vitamin D is a highly effective way to avoid influenza. In fact, children taking low doses of Vitamin D3 were shown to be 42 percent less likely to come down with the flu. The randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study included 430 children aged 6-15, who were followed between December 2008 and March 2009. Half were given 1,200 IU’s of vitamin D3 daily, while the other half received a placebo. Influenza strains were determined through lab testing of nose and throat swabs. Eighteen of the children taking vitamin D contracted influenza Type A, compared to 31 children in the placebo group. Type B influenza rates were unaffected by vitamin D use, however, the illness resulting from Type B influenza strains is typically milder than Type A. Considering the fact that influenza was reduced by 42 percent at a dose of just 1,200 IU’s a day, it’s possible that even better results might be obtained with higher dosages—depending on just how deficient you are to begin with, of course, because it’s not really the dosage that matters; it’s the amount of vitamin D in your blood.

It’s Not the Dosage that Matters—It’s the Serum Level

Some 40 leading vitamin D experts from around the world currently agree that the most important factor when it comes to vitamin D is your serum level. So you really should be taking whatever dosage required to obtain a therapeutic level of vitamin D in your blood. vitamin-d-levels-chart-25-hydroxy-d-optimal-deficient-cancer-excess-ng-ml     However, while there is no specific dosage level at which “magic” happens, based on the most recent research by GrassrootsHealth—an organization that has greatly contributed to the current knowledge on vitamin D through their D* Action Study—it appears as though most adults need about 8,000 IU’s of vitamin D a day in order to get their serum levels above 40 ng/ml. This is significantly higher than previously recommended! For children, many experts agree they need about 35 IU’s of vitamin D per pound of body weight.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gaE_9yOb6dQ&feature=player_embedded Download Interview Transcript At the time GrassrootsHealth performed the studies that resulted in this increased dosage recommendation, the optimal serum level was believed to be between 40 to 60 nanograms per milliliter (ng/ml). Since then, the optimal vitamin D level has been raised to 50-70 ng/ml, and when treating cancer or heart disease, as high as 70-100 ng/ml, as illustrated in the chart below. What this means is that even if you do not regularly monitor your vitamin D levels (which you should), your risk of overdosing is going to be fairly slim, even if you take as much as 8,000 IU’s a day. However, the only way to determine your optimal dose is to get your blood tested regularly, and adjust your dosage to maintain that goldilocks’ zone. For an in-depth explanation of everything you need to know before you get tested, please see Test Values and Treatment for Vitamin D Deficiency.

The Ideal Way to Optimize Your Vitamin D Levels

While a lot of the focus on vitamin D ends up being about vitamin D supplementation, the IDEAL way to optimize your vitamin D levels is not by taking a pill, but rather allowing your body to do what it was designed to do—create vitamin D from sun exposure. In a recent interview, Dr. Stephanie Seneff really brought the importance of getting your vitamin D from sun exposure to the fore. While I’ve consistently recommended getting your vitamin D from regular sun exposure whenever possible, her input really convinced me of the wisdom of this natural strategy. She explained that when your skin is exposed to sunshine, it synthesizes not only vitamin D3, but also vitamin D3 sulfate. Your sulfur levels are intricately tied to your cholesterol levels, and plays an important role in the prevention of heart disease. So essentially, getting regular sun exposure has much greater health ramifications than “just” raising your vitamin D levels and preventing infections. Sun exposure also appears to play a role in heart- and cardiovascular health, and much more! The sulfated vitamin D formed in your skin in response to sun exposure is water soluble, unlike an oral vitamin D3 supplements, which is unsulfated. The water soluble form can travel freely in your blood stream, whereas the unsulfated form needs LDL (the so-called “bad” cholesterol) as a vehicle of transport. Dr. Seneff’s suspicion is that the oral non-sulfated form of vitamin D may therefore not provide all of the same benefits as the sulfated form, because it cannot be converted to vitamin D sulfate... If you cannot get your vitamin D requirements from sun exposure, I recommend using a safe tanning bed (one with electronic ballasts rather than magnetic ballasts, to avoid unnecessary exposure to EMF fields). Safe tanning beds also have less of the dangerous UVA than sunlight, while unsafe ones have more UVA than sunlight. If neither of these are feasible options, then you should take an oral vitamin D3 supplement. It will definitely be better than no vitamin D at all.

Vitamin D Versus Flu Vaccine

Although the featured study did not make any comparison with vaccination, the ‘gold standard’ of scientific analysis, the so-called Cochrane Database Review, has issued no less than five reports between 2006 and 2010, all of which decimate the claim that flu vaccinations are the most effective prevention method available. For example, just last year, Cochrane published the following bombshell conclusion, which was completely ignored by mainstream media:

“Influenza vaccines have a modest effect in reducing influenza symptoms and working days lost. There is no evidence that they affect complications, such as pneumonia, or transmission. WARNING: This review includes 15 out of 36 trials funded by industry (four had no funding declaration). An earlier systematic review of 274 influenza vaccine studies published up to 2007 found industry funded studies were published in more prestigious journals and cited more than other studies independently from methodological quality and size. Studies funded from public sources were significantly less likely to report conclusions favorable to the vaccines….” [Emphasis mine.]

So, despite the fact that 15 of the 36 studies included were biased by industry interests, they still couldn’t come up with evidence supporting the conventional claim that flu vaccines are the best and most effective prevention available against the flu. The Cochrane Database Review has also issued two reports each on the effectiveness of flu vaccines on infants and the elderly, and all four reviews had negative findings! For children:

  1. A large-scale, systematic review of 51 studies, published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in 2006, found no evidence that the flu vaccine is any more effective than a placebo in children under two. The studies involved 260,000 children, age 6 to 23 months.
  2. Two years, later, in 2008, another Cochrane review again concluded that “little evidence is available” that the flu vaccine is effective for children under the age of two. Even more disturbingly, the authors stated that: “It was surprising to find only one study of inactivated vaccine in children under two years, given current recommendations to vaccinate healthy children from six months old in the USA and Canada. If immunization in children is to be recommended as a public health policy, large-scale studies assessing important outcomes and directly comparing vaccine types are urgently required.”

And for the elderly:

  1. The available evidence with regards to protecting the elderly is equally abysmal. The authors concluded that: “The available evidence is of poor quality and provides no guidance regarding the safety, efficacy or effectiveness of influenza vaccines for people aged 65 years or older.”
  2. Cochrane also reviewed whether or not vaccinating health care workers can help protect the elderly patients with whom they work. In conclusion, the authors state that: “[T]here is no evidence that vaccinating health care workers prevents influenza in elderly residents in long-term care facilities.

Is Influenza a Symptom of Vitamin D Deficiency?

Getting back to vitamin D, Dr. John Cannell, founder of the Vitamin D Council, was one of the first to introduce the idea that vitamin D deficiency may actually be an underlying cause of influenza, which would help explain its apparent benefits as a flu-fighter. His hypothesis was published in the journal Epidemiology and Infection in 2006, which was followed up with another study published in the Virology Journal in 2008. Dr. Cannell’s hypothesis received further support and confirmation when, in the following year, the largest and most nationally representative study of its kind to date discovered that people with the lowest blood vitamin D levels reported having significantly more recent colds or cases of the flu. In conclusion, lead author Dr. Adit Ginde stated:

“The findings of our study support an important role for vitamin D in prevention of common respiratory infections, such as colds and the flu. Individuals with common lung diseases, such as asthma or emphysema, may be particularly susceptible to respiratory infections from vitamin D deficiency.”

The evidence supporting Dr. Cannell’s hypothesis of influenza as a symptom of vitamin D deficiency is so compelling that I, for one, believe optimizing your vitamin D levels is one of the absolute best flu-prevention strategies available to date. But that’s not to say it’s the only factor. Your overall immune function cannot be ignored, and when it comes to maintaining optimal immune function, your diet becomes sacrosanct.

Dietary Strategies to Kick a Cold or Flu

Hopefully, you’ve already taken some of my dietary advice to heart and started reducing sugars/fructose and grains from your diet, which (in combination with appropriate sun exposure) will automatically help you maintain more robust immune function year-round. However, if you’ve been a bit lax on this point, the first thing you want to do when you feel yourself coming down with a cold or flu is to immediately cut ALL sugars/fructose, grains, artificial sweeteners, and processed foods from your diet. Sugar is particularly damaging to your immune system — which needs to be ramped up, not suppressed, in order to combat an emerging infection. This includes fructose from fruit juice, and all types of grains (as they break down as sugar in your body). Ideally, you’ll want to address nutrition, sleep, exercise and stress at the very first signs of ‘getting a bug.’ This is when immune-enhancing strategies will be most effective. For details on specific immune-boosting foods and supplements that can help boost your immune function to help you kick your cold or flu faster, please see my article The First Thing to do When a Cold or Flu Strikes. http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2011/12/14/study-shows-vitamin-d-cuts-flu-by-nearly-50.aspx —-

1.       Vitamina D e doenças causadas pela deficiência

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/06/04/vitamina-d-e-doencas-causadas-pela-deficiencia/

  1. The Vitamin Which Can Cut Your Flu Risk Nearly in Half

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/the-vitamin-which-can-cut-your-flu-risk-nearly-in-half/

 

3.       20 razões para tomar Vitamina D

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/20-razoes-para-tomar-vitamina-d/

 

4.       Vitamin D and Health

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/vitamin-d-and-health-2/

 

5.       Vitamina D – contra envelhecimento e contra a gripe suína

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/23/vitamina-d-contra-envelhecimento-e-contra-a-gripe-suina/

 

6.       Vitamin D Deficiency – Michael F. Holick, M.D., Ph.D.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/22/vitamin-d-deficiency-michael-f-holick-m-d-ph-d/

 

7.       Como funciona e qual é a relação entre vitamina D e proteção ao câncer

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/21/como-funciona-e-qual-e-a-relacao-entre-vitamina-d-e-protecao-ao-cancer/

 

8.       Fatigue and Muscle Weakness From a Vitamin D Deficiency

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/16/fatigue-and-muscle-weakness-from-a-vitamin-d-deficiency/

 

9.       Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/15/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-levels-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis/

 

10.   Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra, fundador e Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade, médico neurologista, Phd., M.D., professor na Universidade Federal de São Paulo

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/21/dr-cicero-galli-coimbra-fundador-e-presidente-do-instituto-de-investigacao-e-tratamento-de-autoimunidade-medico-neurologista-phd-m-d-professor-na-universidade-federal-de-sao-paulo/

 

  1. Estudo randomizado de suplementação de vitamina D para prevenir a gripe sazonal A em crianças em idade escolar – Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/29/estudo-randomizado-de-suplementacao-de-vitamina-d-para-prevenir-a-gripe-sazonal-a-em-criancas-em-idade-escolar-randomized-trial-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-to-prevent-seasonal-influenza-a-in-school/

 

  1. É preciso reconhecer os sintomas da deficiência de vitamina D, o hormonio esteroide imunoregulador

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/29/e-preciso-reconhecer-os-sintomas-da-deficiencia-de-vitamina-d-o-hormonio-esteroide-imunoregulador/

 

13.   A suplementação de vitamina D aumentou a resposta à terapêutica anti-tuberculose em um estudo randomizado de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar com baciloscopia positiva.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/30/a-suplementacao-de-vitamina-d-aumentou-a-resposta-a-terapeutica-anti-tuberculose-em-um-estudo-randomizado-de-pacientes-com-tuberculose-pulmonar-com-baciloscopia-positiva/

 

14.   Estudo controlado randomizado mostra ligação entre a vitamina D e rinite alérgica

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/01/estudo-controlado-randomizado-mostra-ligacao-entre-a-vitamina-d-e-rinite-alergica/

 

15.   A pilot study assessing the effect of prolonged administration of high daily doses of vitamin D on the clinical course of vitiligo and psoriasis

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/06/01/a-pilot-study-assessing-the-effect-of-prolonged-administration-of-high-daily-doses-of-vitamin-d-on-the-clinical-course-of-vitiligo-and-psoriasis/

15 . Traumatic Brain Injury and Aging: Is a Combination of Progesterone and Vitamin D Hormone a Simple Solution to a Complex Problem?

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/06/02/traumatic-brain-injury-and-aging-is-a-combination-of-progesterone-and-vitamin-d-hormone-a-simple-solution-to-a-complex-problem/

16. O que você não sabe ou reconhece pode prejudicar a sua saúde

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/31/o-que-voce-nao-sabe-ou-reconhece-pode-prejudicar-a-sua-saude/

17.  Câncer de mama: a vitamina D ou mastectomia

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/30/cancer-de-mama-a-vitamina-d-ou-mastectomia/

18.  A vitamina D supera a vacina contra a gripe

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/30/a-vitamina-d-supera-a-vacina-contra-a-gripe/

19.  Não patenteiem meus genes! Liberem os genes do câncer da mama!

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/30/nao-patenteiem-meus-genes-liberem-os-genes-do-cancer-da-mama/

20.  Existe terapêutica natural e de baixo custo para doenças autoimunitárias. Depoimentos de pacientes com esclerose múltipla. Vitamina D – Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra, PhD, MD.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/26/existe-terapeutica-natural-e-de-baixo-custo-para-doencas-autoimunitarias-depoimentos-de-pacientes-com-esclerose-multipla-vitamina-d-dr-cicero-galli-coimbra-phd-md/

21.  Vitamina D – Por uma outra terapia (p/ a esclerose múltipla) e todas as doenças autoimunes

https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=erAgu1XcY-U

  1. Vitamina D pode revolucionar o tratamento da esclerose múltipla*

http://biodireitomedicina.wordpress.com/category/doencas-autoimunes/

  1. POR UM NOVO PARADIGMA DE CONDUTA E TRATAMENTO http://www.institutodeautoimunidade.org.br/novo-paradigma.html

Por Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra Médico Internista e Neurologista, Professor Associado Livre-Docente da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Fundador e Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade  

24.  Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra – Doenças Autoimunes e Vitamina D

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4uJt1361aGw

25.  Mais de 10 anos de tratamento com a Vitamina D – Exijam que seus médicos se atualizem!

http://biodireitomedicina.wordpress.com/2012/12/23/mais-de-10-anos-de-tratamento-com-a-vitamina-d-exija-que-seus-medicos-se-atualizem/  – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fQN32qR_M2Y

 

26.  POR 30 ANOS, EXTENSA REVISÃO DE TODA A PESQUISA ANTERIOR CONFIRMA QUE BAIXO NÍVEL DE VITAMINA D É UMA SENTENÇA DE MORTE

http://biodireitomedicina.wordpress.com/2013/02/14/vitamina-d-reportagem-com-dr-cicero-galli-coimbra-e-daniel-cunha-na-rede-record/

27.  “As doses diárias de 10.000 unidades de colecalciferol devem ser tomadas por todas pessoas. Essa quantidade previne todas as doenças inclusive à autoimunidade. Com 10.000 unidades a pessoa sai da deficiencia de vitamina D. A dose de 1.000 unidades não tira as pessoas da deficiencia de vitamina D.’’ – Dr. Cicero Galli Coimbra, medico neurologista, Phd., professor na Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/01/21/as-doses-diarias-de-10-000-unidades-de-colecalciferol-devem-ser-tomadas-por-todas-pessoas-essa-quantidade-previne-todas-as-doencas-inclusive-a-autoimunidade-com-10-000-unidades-a-pessoa-sai/

28.  Entrevistas com Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra sobre o hormônio-vitamina D

http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLeqEGmvbpULN2NfNfnLU6bYse4fp9alQS

  1. Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra – Esclerose múltipla e o tratamento com a vitamina D – 28.01.13 – TV Mundi

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/02/03/dr-cicero-galli-coimbra-esclerose-multipla-e-o-tratamento-com-a-vitamina-d-28-01-13-tv-mundi/

  1. Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra – Esclerose múltipla e o tratamento com a vitamina D – 28.01.13 – TV Mundi

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hv6tD3B0Nlo&list=PLeqEGmvbpULNrc8biL5LF9Mp3-WbJT2Ao

http://www.youtube.com/watch?list=PLeqEGmvbpULNrc8biL5LF9Mp3-WbJT2Ao&feature=player_detailpage&v=hv6tD3B0Nlo

  1. “As doses diárias de 10.000 unidades de colecalciferol devem ser tomadas por todas pessoas. Essa quantidade previne todas as doenças inclusive à autoimunidade. Com 10.000 unidades a pessoa sai da deficiencia de vitamina D. A dose de 1.000 unidades não tira as pessoas da deficiencia de vitamina D.’’ – Dr. Cicero Galli Coimbra, medico neurologista, Phd., professor na Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/01/21/as-doses-diarias-de-10-000-unidades-de-colecalciferol-devem-ser-tomadas-por-todas-pessoas-essa-quantidade-previne-todas-as-doencas-inclusive-a-autoimunidade-com-10-000-unidades-a-pessoa-sai/

32.  A responsabilidade Civil e Criminal Médica na Desinformação às pessoas – Revista VEJA, 2.304: “O que você não sabe sobre a Vitamina do Sol. Ela continua a surpreender a medicina com novos efeitos benéficos.”

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/25/a-responsabilidade-civil-e-criminal-medica-na-desinformacao-as-pessoas-revista-veja-2-304-o-que-voce-nao-sabe-sobre-a-vitamina-do-sol-ela-continua-a-surpreender-a-medicina-com-novos-efe/

33.  Vitamina D: A Desinformação Médica e o Direito à Informação do Cidadão

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/25/vitamina-d-a-desinformacao-medica-e-o-direito-a-informacao-do-cidadao-2/

34.  A suplementação de vitamina D aumentou a resposta à terapêutica anti-tuberculose em um estudo randomizado de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar com baciloscopia positiva.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/30/a-suplementacao-de-vitamina-d-aumentou-a-resposta-a-terapeutica-anti-tuberculose-em-um-estudo-randomizado-de-pacientes-com-tuberculose-pulmonar-com-baciloscopia-positiva/

35.  Estudo randomizado de suplementação de vitamina D para prevenir a gripe sazonal A em crianças em idade escolar – Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/29/estudo-randomizado-de-suplementacao-de-vitamina-d-para-prevenir-a-gripe-sazonal-a-em-criancas-em-idade-escolar-randomized-trial-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-to-prevent-seasonal-influenza-a-in-school/

  1. É preciso reconhecer os sintomas da deficiência de vitamina D, o hormonio esteroide imunoregulador

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/29/e-preciso-reconhecer-os-sintomas-da-deficiencia-de-vitamina-d-o-hormonio-esteroide-imunoregula

  1. The Vitamin Which Can Cut Your Flu Risk Nearly in Half

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/the-vitamin-which-can-cut-your-flu-risk-nearly-in-half/

 

  1. 20 razões para tomar Vitamina D

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/20-razoes-para-tomar-vitamina-d/

  1. Vitamin D and Health

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/vitamin-d-and-health-2/

  1. Vitamina D – contra envelhecimento e contra a gripe suína

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/23/vitamina-d-contra-envelhecimento-e-contra-a-gripe-suina/

  1. Vitamin D Deficiency – Michael F. Holick, M.D., Ph.D.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/22/vitamin-d-deficiency-michael-f-holick-m-d-ph-d/

  1. Como funciona e qual é a relação entre vitamina D e proteção ao câncer

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/21/como-funciona-e-qual-e-a-relacao-entre-vitamina-d-e-protecao-ao-cancer/

  1. Fatigue and Muscle Weakness From a Vitamin D Deficiency

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/16/fatigue-and-muscle-weakness-from-a-vitamin-d-deficiency/

  1. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/15/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-levels-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis/

  1. Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra, fundador e Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade, médico neurologista, Phd., M.D., professor na Universidade Federal de São Paulo

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/21/dr-cicero-galli-coimbra-fundador-e-presidente-do-instituto-de-investigacao-e-tratamento-de-autoimunidade-medico-neurologista-phd-m-d-professor-na-universidade-federal-de-sao-paulo/


20 razões para tomar Vitamina D

00000As palavras que seguem bem questionam os porquês das vacinas e o mercado da industria farmacêutica.

 ~~~~~~~~~~

Curiosamente, não consta da lista de recomendações para conter a gripe do vírus H1N1 distribuída pela Organização Mundial de Saúde e pela Direcção-Geral de Saúde ou por quaisquer outros órgãos responsáveis em Portugal qualquer menção à vitamina D ou outros remédios naturais que oferecem enorme protecção contra as infecções de gripe. Esquecimento?

A ausência desta informação é no mínimo estranha. Se uma pandemia de gripe está, de facto, em vias de ameaçar tanta gente e se a maioria da população é deficiente num nutriente conhecido por evitar infecções da gripe, não faria sentido fazer alguns anúncios encorajando as pessoas a aumentarem os seus níveis de vitamina D, especialmente durante o Inverno?

É do conhecimento médico e de todos que a gripe tem tendência a desenvolver-se mais durante o Inverno. E isto coincide com o facto de termos um menor período de exposição solar. Ou seja, as pessoas tornam-se deficientes em vitamina D e ficam mais susceptíveis a todos os tipos de infecções de gripe.

Poderão ser encontradas facilmente na Internet informações científicas que reforçam esta ideia. Por exemplo, pesquise no Google por influenza and Vitamin D , ou gripe e vitamina D, e encontrará milhares de trabalhos científicos (revistos por outros tantos cientistas). Veja, por exemplo, o estudo desta lista intitulado “Gripe Epidemica e Vitamina D”. Este artigo foi publicado em 2006 no jornal “Epidemiologia e Infecção” (2006, 134:6:1129-1140 Cambridge University Press) que resumidamente diz o seguinte:

Em 1981, R. Edgar Hope-Simpson estabeleceu a relação entre a radiação solar e a sazonalidade da epidemia de gripe. Demonstrou que a radiação solar provoca a produção da vitamina D na pele, que a deficiência de vitamina D é comum no Inverno e que a vitamina D activada tem efeitos profundos sobre a imunidade humana. A vitamina D funciona como um modulador do sistema imunológico. Talvez ainda mais importante do que isso, ele demonstrou que a vitamina D estimula dramaticamente a produção de potentes peptídeos anti-microbiais, os quais existem em neutrófilos, monócitos, células exterminadoras naturais e em células epiteliais do trato respiratório, onde desempenham um papel importante na protecção do pulmão contra a infecção. Ao contrário, a deficiência de vitamina D predispõe as pessoas a infecções respiratórias. Ou seja, a radiação ultravioleta (ou a partir de fontes de luz solar ou artificial) reduz a incidência de infecções respiratórias virais.
Não sei se será este o motivo pelo qual muitos especialistas dizem ser preferível tomar vitamina D do que tomar a vacina contra a gripe A, mas seguramente será porque:

#1. A vitamina D activa o seu sistema imunológico para responder a todo o tipo de ataques virais (não apenas contra o vírus da Gripe, seja ela sazonal ou não). Considerando que existem cerca de 50.000 espécies vertebradas e que cada espécie tem cerca de 20 vírus específicos, calcula-se que haja 1 milhão de vírus no planeta. Vamos ter uma vacina para cada vírus?

#2. A vitamina D pertence naturalmente ao seu corpo, não é um elemento estranho. Ainda está por avaliar o impacto do uso de compostos químicos produzidos em laboratório na saúde humana, ou melhor na falta dela (exemplo: no aparecimento de novas doenças), quer a curto prazo quer a longo prazo (gerações seguintes).

#3. A vitamina D tem funcionado como um medicamento no corpo humano desde o inicio da existência da espécie humana. Vamos utilizá-lo!

#4. A vitamina D está, como sempre esteve, disponível em grandes quantidades e não se prevê qualquer falta no seu “abastecimento”.

#5. A vitamina D não faz inchar o cérebro, nem o põe em coma. É do conhecimento geral que se tem dado pouca atenção aos efeitos secundários de qualquer medicamentação, quer pela falta de atenção médica, quer pelo pouco hábito de nos queixarmos, quer por falta de estudos adequados. Alguém sabe os efeitos adversos da utilização na composição das vacinas de mercúrio e/ou de adjuvantes na saúde humana?

#6. A vitamina D não é tomada por injecção, nem por spray nasal, logo não dói.

#7. A vitamina D encontra-se naturalmente em muitos alimentos. Por exemplo, na sardinha e no salmão e até no óleo fígado de bacalhau. Também em alguns cereais. Fale com o seu nutricionista!

#8. A vitamina D é perfeitamente segura. Nunca ninguém morreu ao consumi-la.

#9. A vitamina D é barata. Você pode mesmo obtê-la gratuitamente (da luz solar). 10-15 minutos diários de exposição à luz solar serão suficientes.

#10. A vitamina D não contém fragmentos virais de animais. (Exemplo: rim de macaco verde africano)

#11. A vitamina D não contém agentes conservantes, tais como o timerosal ou outros químicos, que, de acordo com a opinião de muitos cientistas, podem estar na origem e no desenvolvimento de muitos problemas de saúde (exemplo: autismo).

#12. A vitamina D não tem necessidade de vir acompanhada com uma folha explicativa com indicação das advertências sobre os possíveis efeitos secundários, pois não existem.

#13. A vitamina D é indolor e não deixa marcas no braço.

#14. A vitamina D melhora igualmente o metabolismo do açúcar, a densidade dos ossos e o seu bem-estar geral.

#15. A vitamina D é segura para o ambiente.

#16. A vitamina D não contém esqualeno nem outros produtos químicos adjuvantes inflamatórios. O esqualeno foi recentemente acusado de causar o aparecimento de doenças neurológicas tais como a síndrome de Guillain-Barré, a qual para além de ser uma doença incapacitante, conduz frequentemente à morte. De referir que as vacinas da gripe sazonal não tem este químico.

#17. A vitamina D é eficiente e segura em todos, incluindo grávidas e crianças. De acordo com a opinião do Dr. Daniel Floret, Presidente do Comité Técnico das Vacinações em França, não se conhece absolutamente nada sobre os possíveis efeitos secundários dos adjuvantes. Contudo, ele prevê possíveis efeitos secundários indesejáveis sobre o sistema imunitário das grávidas e bebés, precisamente os que estão na 1º linha de vacinação. A Suíça também seguiu este caminho.

#18. A vitamina D foi feita na natureza e não em laboratório.

#19. A vitamina D encontra-se naturalmente no leite materno.

#20. Você pode andar, mastigar uma pastilha ou mesmo conversar e gerar ao mesmo tempo a vitamina D que necessita a partir da luz solar!

Comece já hoje a tomar vitamina D! É barata e dá saúde! Ande ao ar livre!

 Gripe A? 20 razões para tomar Vitamina D

DORA FRANCO  

http://terapia-sacrocraniana.blogspot.com.br/2009/12/gripe-20-razoes-para-tomar-vitamina-d.html

—————-

 

1.       Vitamina D e doenças causadas pela deficiência

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/06/04/vitamina-d-e-doencas-causadas-pela-deficiencia/

  1. The Vitamin Which Can Cut Your Flu Risk Nearly in Half

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/the-vitamin-which-can-cut-your-flu-risk-nearly-in-half/

 

3.       20 razões para tomar Vitamina D

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/20-razoes-para-tomar-vitamina-d/

 

4.       Vitamin D and Health

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/vitamin-d-and-health-2/

 

5.       Vitamina D – contra envelhecimento e contra a gripe suína

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/23/vitamina-d-contra-envelhecimento-e-contra-a-gripe-suina/

 

6.       Vitamin D Deficiency – Michael F. Holick, M.D., Ph.D.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/22/vitamin-d-deficiency-michael-f-holick-m-d-ph-d/

 

7.       Como funciona e qual é a relação entre vitamina D e proteção ao câncer

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/21/como-funciona-e-qual-e-a-relacao-entre-vitamina-d-e-protecao-ao-cancer/

 

8.       Fatigue and Muscle Weakness From a Vitamin D Deficiency

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/16/fatigue-and-muscle-weakness-from-a-vitamin-d-deficiency/

 

9.       Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/15/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-levels-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis/

 

10.   Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra, fundador e Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade, médico neurologista, Phd., M.D., professor na Universidade Federal de São Paulo

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/21/dr-cicero-galli-coimbra-fundador-e-presidente-do-instituto-de-investigacao-e-tratamento-de-autoimunidade-medico-neurologista-phd-m-d-professor-na-universidade-federal-de-sao-paulo/

 

  1. Estudo randomizado de suplementação de vitamina D para prevenir a gripe sazonal A em crianças em idade escolar – Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/29/estudo-randomizado-de-suplementacao-de-vitamina-d-para-prevenir-a-gripe-sazonal-a-em-criancas-em-idade-escolar-randomized-trial-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-to-prevent-seasonal-influenza-a-in-school/

 

  1. É preciso reconhecer os sintomas da deficiência de vitamina D, o hormonio esteroide imunoregulador

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/29/e-preciso-reconhecer-os-sintomas-da-deficiencia-de-vitamina-d-o-hormonio-esteroide-imunoregulador/

 

13.   A suplementação de vitamina D aumentou a resposta à terapêutica anti-tuberculose em um estudo randomizado de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar com baciloscopia positiva.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/30/a-suplementacao-de-vitamina-d-aumentou-a-resposta-a-terapeutica-anti-tuberculose-em-um-estudo-randomizado-de-pacientes-com-tuberculose-pulmonar-com-baciloscopia-positiva/

 

14.   Estudo controlado randomizado mostra ligação entre a vitamina D e rinite alérgica

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/01/estudo-controlado-randomizado-mostra-ligacao-entre-a-vitamina-d-e-rinite-alergica/

 

15.   A pilot study assessing the effect of prolonged administration of high daily doses of vitamin D on the clinical course of vitiligo and psoriasis

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/06/01/a-pilot-study-assessing-the-effect-of-prolonged-administration-of-high-daily-doses-of-vitamin-d-on-the-clinical-course-of-vitiligo-and-psoriasis/

15 . Traumatic Brain Injury and Aging: Is a Combination of Progesterone and Vitamin D Hormone a Simple Solution to a Complex Problem?

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/06/02/traumatic-brain-injury-and-aging-is-a-combination-of-progesterone-and-vitamin-d-hormone-a-simple-solution-to-a-complex-problem/

16. O que você não sabe ou reconhece pode prejudicar a sua saúde

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/31/o-que-voce-nao-sabe-ou-reconhece-pode-prejudicar-a-sua-saude/

17.  Câncer de mama: a vitamina D ou mastectomia

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/30/cancer-de-mama-a-vitamina-d-ou-mastectomia/

18.  A vitamina D supera a vacina contra a gripe

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/30/a-vitamina-d-supera-a-vacina-contra-a-gripe/

19.  Não patenteiem meus genes! Liberem os genes do câncer da mama!

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/30/nao-patenteiem-meus-genes-liberem-os-genes-do-cancer-da-mama/

20.  Existe terapêutica natural e de baixo custo para doenças autoimunitárias. Depoimentos de pacientes com esclerose múltipla. Vitamina D – Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra, PhD, MD.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/26/existe-terapeutica-natural-e-de-baixo-custo-para-doencas-autoimunitarias-depoimentos-de-pacientes-com-esclerose-multipla-vitamina-d-dr-cicero-galli-coimbra-phd-md/

21.  Vitamina D – Por uma outra terapia (p/ a esclerose múltipla) e todas as doenças autoimunes

https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=erAgu1XcY-U

  1. Vitamina D pode revolucionar o tratamento da esclerose múltipla*

http://biodireitomedicina.wordpress.com/category/doencas-autoimunes/

  1. POR UM NOVO PARADIGMA DE CONDUTA E TRATAMENTO http://www.institutodeautoimunidade.org.br/novo-paradigma.html

Por Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra Médico Internista e Neurologista, Professor Associado Livre-Docente da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Fundador e Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade  

24.  Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra – Doenças Autoimunes e Vitamina D

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4uJt1361aGw

 

25.  Mais de 10 anos de tratamento com a Vitamina D – Exijam que seus médicos se atualizem!

http://biodireitomedicina.wordpress.com/2012/12/23/mais-de-10-anos-de-tratamento-com-a-vitamina-d-exija-que-seus-medicos-se-atualizem/  – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fQN32qR_M2Y

 

26.  POR 30 ANOS, EXTENSA REVISÃO DE TODA A PESQUISA ANTERIOR CONFIRMA QUE BAIXO NÍVEL DE VITAMINA D É UMA SENTENÇA DE MORTE

http://biodireitomedicina.wordpress.com/2013/02/14/vitamina-d-reportagem-com-dr-cicero-galli-coimbra-e-daniel-cunha-na-rede-record/

 

27.  “As doses diárias de 10.000 unidades de colecalciferol devem ser tomadas por todas pessoas. Essa quantidade previne todas as doenças inclusive à autoimunidade. Com 10.000 unidades a pessoa sai da deficiencia de vitamina D. A dose de 1.000 unidades não tira as pessoas da deficiencia de vitamina D.’’ – Dr. Cicero Galli Coimbra, medico neurologista, Phd., professor na Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/01/21/as-doses-diarias-de-10-000-unidades-de-colecalciferol-devem-ser-tomadas-por-todas-pessoas-essa-quantidade-previne-todas-as-doencas-inclusive-a-autoimunidade-com-10-000-unidades-a-pessoa-sai/

28.  Entrevistas com Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra sobre o hormônio-vitamina D

http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLeqEGmvbpULN2NfNfnLU6bYse4fp9alQS

  1. Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra – Esclerose múltipla e o tratamento com a vitamina D – 28.01.13 – TV Mundi

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/02/03/dr-cicero-galli-coimbra-esclerose-multipla-e-o-tratamento-com-a-vitamina-d-28-01-13-tv-mundi/

  1. Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra – Esclerose múltipla e o tratamento com a vitamina D – 28.01.13 – TV Mundi

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hv6tD3B0Nlo&list=PLeqEGmvbpULNrc8biL5LF9Mp3-WbJT2Ao

http://www.youtube.com/watch?list=PLeqEGmvbpULNrc8biL5LF9Mp3-WbJT2Ao&feature=player_detailpage&v=hv6tD3B0Nlo

  1. “As doses diárias de 10.000 unidades de colecalciferol devem ser tomadas por todas pessoas. Essa quantidade previne todas as doenças inclusive à autoimunidade. Com 10.000 unidades a pessoa sai da deficiencia de vitamina D. A dose de 1.000 unidades não tira as pessoas da deficiencia de vitamina D.’’ – Dr. Cicero Galli Coimbra, medico neurologista, Phd., professor na Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/01/21/as-doses-diarias-de-10-000-unidades-de-colecalciferol-devem-ser-tomadas-por-todas-pessoas-essa-quantidade-previne-todas-as-doencas-inclusive-a-autoimunidade-com-10-000-unidades-a-pessoa-sai/

 

32.  A responsabilidade Civil e Criminal Médica na Desinformação às pessoas – Revista VEJA, 2.304: “O que você não sabe sobre a Vitamina do Sol. Ela continua a surpreender a medicina com novos efeitos benéficos.”

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/25/a-responsabilidade-civil-e-criminal-medica-na-desinformacao-as-pessoas-revista-veja-2-304-o-que-voce-nao-sabe-sobre-a-vitamina-do-sol-ela-continua-a-surpreender-a-medicina-com-novos-efe/

 

33.  Vitamina D: A Desinformação Médica e o Direito à Informação do Cidadão

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/05/25/vitamina-d-a-desinformacao-medica-e-o-direito-a-informacao-do-cidadao-2/

34.  A suplementação de vitamina D aumentou a resposta à terapêutica anti-tuberculose em um estudo randomizado de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar com baciloscopia positiva.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/30/a-suplementacao-de-vitamina-d-aumentou-a-resposta-a-terapeutica-anti-tuberculose-em-um-estudo-randomizado-de-pacientes-com-tuberculose-pulmonar-com-baciloscopia-positiva/

 

35.  Estudo randomizado de suplementação de vitamina D para prevenir a gripe sazonal A em crianças em idade escolar – Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/29/estudo-randomizado-de-suplementacao-de-vitamina-d-para-prevenir-a-gripe-sazonal-a-em-criancas-em-idade-escolar-randomized-trial-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-to-prevent-seasonal-influenza-a-in-school/

 

  1. É preciso reconhecer os sintomas da deficiência de vitamina D, o hormonio esteroide imunoregulador

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/29/e-preciso-reconhecer-os-sintomas-da-deficiencia-de-vitamina-d-o-hormonio-esteroide-imunoregula

  1. The Vitamin Which Can Cut Your Flu Risk Nearly in Half

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/the-vitamin-which-can-cut-your-flu-risk-nearly-in-half/

 

  1. 20 razões para tomar Vitamina D

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/20-razoes-para-tomar-vitamina-d/

  1. Vitamin D and Health

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/24/vitamin-d-and-health-2/

  1. Vitamina D – contra envelhecimento e contra a gripe suína

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/23/vitamina-d-contra-envelhecimento-e-contra-a-gripe-suina/

  1. Vitamin D Deficiency – Michael F. Holick, M.D., Ph.D.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/22/vitamin-d-deficiency-michael-f-holick-m-d-ph-d/

  1. Como funciona e qual é a relação entre vitamina D e proteção ao câncer

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/21/como-funciona-e-qual-e-a-relacao-entre-vitamina-d-e-protecao-ao-cancer/

  1. Fatigue and Muscle Weakness From a Vitamin D Deficiency

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/16/fatigue-and-muscle-weakness-from-a-vitamin-d-deficiency/

  1. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/15/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-levels-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis/

  1. Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra, fundador e Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade, médico neurologista, Phd., M.D., professor na Universidade Federal de São Paulo

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2013/04/21/dr-cicero-galli-coimbra-fundador-e-presidente-do-instituto-de-investigacao-e-tratamento-de-autoimunidade-medico-neurologista-phd-m-d-professor-na-universidade-federal-de-sao-paulo/

 

Vitamin D and Health

 Vitamin D and Health

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Vitamin D and Health

Vitamin D Deficiency: A Global Concern

If you live north of the line connecting San Francisco to Philadelphia and Athens to Beijing, odds are that you don’t get enough vitamin D. The same holds true if you don’t get outside for at least a 15-minute daily walk in the sun. African-Americans and others with dark skin, as well as older individuals, tend to have much lower levels of vitamin D, as do people who are overweight or obese.

Worldwide, an estimated 1 billion people have inadequate levels of vitamin D in their blood, and deficiencies can be found in all ethnicities and age groups. (13)  Indeed, in industrialized countries, doctors are even seeing the resurgence of rickets, the bone-weakening disease that had been largely eradicated through vitamin D fortification. (46)

Why are these widespread vitamin D deficiencies of such great concern? Because research conducted over the past decade suggests that vitamin D plays a much broader disease-fighting role than once thought.

Being “D-ficient” may increase the risk of a host of chronic diseases, such as osteoporosis, heart disease, some cancers, and multiple sclerosis, as well as infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis and even the seasonal flu.

Currently, there’s scientific debate about how much vitamin D people need each day. The Institute of Medicine, in a long-awaited report released on November 30, 2010 recommends tripling the daily vitamin D intake for children and adults in the U.S. and Canada, to 600 IU per day. (7) The report also recognized the safety of vitamin D by increasing the upper limit from 2,000 to 4,000 IU per day, and acknowledged that even at 4,000 IU per day, there was no good evidence of harm. The new guidelines, however, are overly conservative about the recommended intake, and they do not give enough weight to some of the latest science on vitamin D and health. For bone health and chronic disease prevention, many people are likely to need more vitamin D than even these new government guidelines recommend.

Read more about why the IOM’s new vitamin D and calcium guidelines are too low in vitamin D and too high in calcium for bone health.

Vitamin D Sources and Function

Vitamin D is both a nutrient we eat and a hormone our bodies make. Few foods are naturally rich in vitamin D, so the biggest dietary sources of vitamin D are fortified foods and vitamin supplements. Good sources include dairy products and breakfast cereals (both of which are fortified with vitamin D), and fatty fish such as salmon and tuna.

For most people, the best way to get enough vitamin D is taking a supplement, but the level in most multivitamins (400 IU) is too low. Encouragingly, some manufacturers have begun adding 800 or 1,000 IU of vitamin D to their standard multivitamin preparations. If the multivitamin you take does not have 1,000 IU of vitamin D, you may want to consider adding a separate vitamin D supplement, especially if you don’t spend much time in the sun. Talk to your healthcare provider.

Two forms of vitamin D are used in supplements: vitamin D2 (“ergocalciferol,” or pre-vitamin D) and vitamin D3 (“cholecalciferol”). Vitamin D3 is chemically indistinguishable from the form of vitamin D produced in the body.

The body also manufactures vitamin D from cholesterol, through a process triggered by the action of sunlight on skin, hence its nickname, “the sunshine vitamin.”  Yet some people do not make enough vitamin D from the sun, among them, people who have a darker skin tone, who are overweight, who are older, and who cover up when they are in the sun. (1)

Correctly applied sunscreen reduces our ability to absorb vitamin D by more than 90 percent. (8) And not all sunlight is created equal: The sun’s ultraviolet B (UVB) rays—the so-called “tanning” rays, and the rays that trigger the skin to produce vitamin D—are stronger near the equator and weaker at higher latitudes. So in the fall and winter, people who live at higher latitudes (in the northern U.S. and Europe, for example) can’t make much if any vitamin D from the sun. (8)

Read more: what may increase your risk for low vitamin D

Vitamin D helps ensure that the body absorbs and retains calcium and phosphorus, both critical for building bone. Laboratory studies show that vitamin D can reduce cancer cell growth and plays a critical role in controlling infections. Many of the body’s organs and tissues have receptors for vitamin D, and scientists are still teasing out its other possible functions.

New Vitamin D Research: Beyond Building Bones

Several promising areas of vitamin D research look far beyond vitamin D’s role in building bones. And, as you might expect, the news media release a flurry of reports every time another study links vitamin D to some new ailment. These reports can be confusing, however, because some studies are stronger than others, and any report needs to be interpreted in the light of all other evidence. More answers may come from randomized trials, such as the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL), which will enroll 20,000 healthy men and women to see if taking 2,000 IU of vitamin D or 1,000 mg of fish oil daily lowers the risk of cancer, heart disease, and stroke.

Here, we provide an overview of some of the more promising areas of vitamin D research, highlighting the complex role of vitamin D in disease prevention—and the many unanswered questions that remain.

Vitamin D and Bone and Muscle Strength

Several studies link low vitamin D levels with an increased risk of fractures in older adults, and they suggest that vitamin D supplementation may prevent such fractures—as long as it is taken in a high enough dose. (913)

A summary of the evidence comes from a combined analysis of 12 fracture prevention trials that included more than 40,000 elderly people, most of them women. Researchers found that high intakes of vitamin D supplements—of about 800 IU per day—reduced hip and non-spine fractures by 20 percent, while lower intakes (400 IU or less) failed to offer any fracture prevention benefit. (13)

Vitamin D may also help increase muscle strength, which in turn helps to prevent falls, a common problem that leads to substantial disability and death in older people. (1416)  Once again, vitamin D dose matters: A combined analysis of multiple studies found that taking 700 to 1,000 IU of vitamin D per day lowered the risk of falls by 19 percent, but taking 200 to 600 IU per day did not offer any such protection. (17)

A recent vitamin D trial drew headlines for its unexpected finding that a very high dose of vitamin D increased fracture and fall risk in older women. (18) The trial’s vitamin D dose—500,000 IU taken in a once-a-year pill—was much higher than previously tested in an annual regimen. After up to 5 years of treatment, women in the vitamin D group had a 15 percent higher fall risk and a 26 percent higher fracture risk than women who received the placebo.

It’s possible that giving the vitamin D in one large dose, rather than in several doses spread throughout the year, led to the increased risk. (18) The study authors note that only one other study—also a high-dose, once-a-year regimen—found vitamin D to increase fracture risk; no other studies have found vitamin D to increase the risk of falls. Furthermore, there’s strong evidence that more moderate doses of vitamin D taken daily or weekly protect against fractures and falls—and are safe.

So what is the significance of this study for people who want to take vitamin D supplements? A reasonable conclusion would be to continue taking moderate doses of vitamin D regularly, since these have a strong safety record, but to avoid extremely high single doses. This recent finding does present a challenge to scientists who will work to understand why the extreme single dose appears to have adverse effects.

Vitamin D and Heart Disease

The heart is basically a large muscle, and like skeletal muscle, it has receptors for vitamin D. (19) So perhaps it’s no surprise that studies are finding vitamin D deficiency may be linked to heart disease. The Health Professional Follow-Up Study checked the vitamin D blood levels in nearly 50,000 men who were healthy, and then followed them for 10 years. (20) They found that men who were deficient in vitamin D were twice as likely to have a heart attack as men who had adequate levels of vitamin D. Other studies have found that low vitamin D levels were associated with higher risk of heart failure, sudden cardiac death, stroke, overall cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular death. (2124) How exactly might vitamin D help prevent heart disease? There’s evidence that vitamin D plays a role in controlling blood pressure and preventing artery damage, and this may explain these findings. (25) Still, more research is needed before we can be confident of these benefits.

Vitamin D and Cancer

Nearly 30 years ago, researchers noticed an intriguing relationship between colon cancer deaths and geographic location: People who lived at higher latitudes, such as in the northern U.S., had higher rates of death from colon cancer than people who live closer to the equator. (26) Many scientific hypotheses about vitamin D and disease stem from studies that have compared solar radiation and disease rates in different countries. These can be a good starting point for other research but don’t provide the most definitive information. The sun’s UVB rays are weaker at higher latitudes, and in turn, people’s vitamin D levels in these high latitude locales tend to be lower. This led to the hypothesis that low vitamin D levels might somehow increase colon cancer risk. (2)

Since then, dozens of studies suggest an association between low vitamin D levels and increased risks of colon and other cancers. (1,27)  The evidence is strongest for colorectal cancer, with most (but not all) observational studies finding that the lower the vitamin D levels, the higher the risk of these diseases. (2838) Vitamin D levels may also predict cancer survival, but evidence for this is still limited. (27) Yet finding such associations does not necessarily mean that taking vitamin D supplements will lower cancer risk.

The VITAL trial will look specifically at whether vitamin D supplements lower cancer risk. It will be years, though, before it releases any results. It could also fail to detect a real benefit of vitamin D, for several reasons: If people in the placebo group decide on their own to take vitamin D supplements, that could minimize any differences between the placebo group and the supplement group; the study may not follow participants for a long enough time to show a cancer prevention benefit; or study participants may be starting supplements too late in life to lower their cancer risk. In the meantime, based on the evidence to date, 16 scientists have circulated a “call for action” on vitamin D and cancer prevention: (27) Given the high rates of vitamin D deficiency in North America, the strong evidence for reduction of osteoporosis and fractures, the potential cancer-fighting benefits of vitamin D, and the low risk of vitamin D supplementation, they recommend widespread vitamin D supplementation of 2000 IU per day. (27)

Read more: vitamin D trials for cancer prevention

Vitamin D and Immune Function

Vitamin D’s role in regulating the immune system has led scientists to explore two parallel research paths: Does vitamin D deficiency contribute to the development of multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, and other so-called “autoimmune” diseases, where the body’s immune system attacks its own organs and tissues? And could vitamin D supplements help boost our body’s defenses to fight infectious disease, such as tuberculosis and seasonal flu? This is a hot research area and more findings will be emerging.

Vitamin D and Multiple Sclerosis: Multiple sclerosis (MS) rates are much higher far north (or far south) of the equator than in sunnier climes, and researchers suspect that chronic vitamin D deficiencies may be one reason why. One prospective study to look at this question found that among white men and women, those with the highest vitamin D blood levels had a 62 percent lower risk of developing MS than those with the lowest vitamin D levels. (39) The study didn’t find this effect among black men and women, most likely because there were fewer black study participants and most of them had low vitamin D levels, making it harder to find any link between vitamin D and MS if one exists.

Vitamin D and Type 1 Diabetes: Type 1 diabetes is another disease that varies with geography—a child in Finland is about 400 times more likely to develop it than a child in Venezuela. (40) Evidence that vitamin D may play a role in preventing type 1 diabetes comes from a 30-year study that followed more than 10,000 Finnish children from birth: Children who regularly received vitamin D supplements during infancy had a nearly 90 percent lower risk of developing type 1 diabetes than those who did not receive supplements. (41)  Other European case-control studies, when analyzed together, also suggest that vitamin D may help protect against type 1 diabetes. (42) No randomized controlled trials have tested this notion, and it is not clear that they would be possible to conduct.

Vitamin D, the Flu, and the Common Cold: The flu virus wreaks the most havoc in the winter, abating in the summer months. This seasonality led a British doctor to hypothesize that a sunlight-related “seasonal stimulus” triggered influenza outbreaks. (43) More than 20 years after this initial hypothesis, several scientists published a paper suggesting that vitamin D may be the seasonal stimulus. (44) Among the evidence they cite:

  • Vitamin D levels are lowest in the winter months. (44) 
  • The active form of vitamin D tempers the damaging inflammatory response of some white blood cells, while it also boosts immune cells’ production of microbe-fighting proteins. (44) 
  • Children who have vitamin D-deficiency rickets are more likely to get respiratory infections, while children exposed to sunlight seem to have fewer respiratory infections. (44) 
  • Adults who have low vitamin D levels are more likely to report having had a recent cough, cold, or upper respiratory tract infection. (45)

A recent randomized controlled trial in Japanese school children tested whether taking daily vitamin D supplements would prevent seasonal flu. (46) The trial followed nearly 340 children for four months during the height of the winter flu season. Half of the study participants received pills that contained 1,200 IU of vitamin D; the other half received placebo pills. Researchers found that type A influenza rates in the vitamin D group were about 40 percent lower than in the placebo group; there was no significant difference in type B influenza rates. This was a small but promising study, and more research is needed before we can definitively say that vitamin D protects against the flu. But don’t skip your flu shot, even if vitamin D has some benefit.

Vitamin D and Tuberculosis: Before the advent of antibiotics, sunlight and sun lamps were part of the standard treatment for tuberculosis (TB). (47) More recent research suggests that the “sunshine vitamin” may be linked to TB risk. Several case-control studies, when analyzed together, suggest that people diagnosed with tuberculosis have lower vitamin D levels than healthy people of similar age and other characteristics. (48)   Such studies do not follow individuals over time, so they cannot tell us whether vitamin D deficiency led to the increased TB risk or whether taking vitamin D supplements would prevent TB. There are also genetic differences in the receptor that binds vitamin D, and these differences may influence TB risk. (49) Again, more research is needed. (49)

Vitamin D and Risk of Premature Death

A promising report in the Archives of Internal Medicine suggests that taking vitamin D supplements may even reduce overall mortality rates: A combined analysis of multiple studies found that taking modest levels of vitamin D supplements was associated with a statistically significant 7 percent reduction in mortality from any cause. (50) The analysis looked at the findings from 18 randomized controlled trials that enrolled a total of nearly 60,000 study participants; most of the study participants took between 400 and 800 IU of vitamin D per day for an average of five years. Keep in mind that this analysis has several limitations, chief among them the fact that the studies it included were not designed to explore mortality in general, or explore specific causes of death. More research is needed before any broad claims can be made about vitamin D and mortality. (51)

References

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2. Gordon CM, DePeter KC, Feldman HA, Grace E, Emans SJ. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004; 158:531-7.

3. Lips P. Worldwide status of vitamin D nutrition. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010; 121:297-300.

4. Robinson PD, Hogler W, Craig ME, et al. The re-emerging burden of rickets: a decade of experience from Sydney. Arch Dis Child. 2006; 91:564-8.

5. Kreiter SR, Schwartz RP, Kirkman HN, Jr., Charlton PA, Calikoglu AS, Davenport ML. Nutritional rickets in African American breast-fed infants. J Pediatr. 2000; 137:153-7.

6. Misra M, Pacaud D, Petryk A, Collett-Solberg PF, Kappy M. Vitamin D deficiency in children and its management: review of current knowledge and recommendations. Pediatrics. 2008; 122:398-417.

7. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2010.

8. Holick MF. Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 79:362-71.

9. Boonen S, Lips P, Bouillon R, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Vanderschueren D, Haentjens P. Need for additional calcium to reduce the risk of hip fracture with vitamin d supplementation: evidence from a comparative metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007; 92:1415-23.

10. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Wong JB, Giovannucci E, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B. Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 2005; 293:2257-64.

11. Cauley JA, Lacroix AZ, Wu L, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and risk for hip fractures. Ann Intern Med. 2008; 149:242-50.

12. Cauley JA, Parimi N, Ensrud KE, et al. Serum 25 HydroxyVitamin D and the Risk of Hip and Non-spine Fractures in Older Men. J Bone Miner Res. 2009.

13. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Wong JB, et al. Prevention of nonvertebral fractures with oral vitamin D and dose dependency: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2009; 169:551-61.

14. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Willett WC, et al. Effect of Vitamin D on falls: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2004; 291:1999-2006.

15. Broe KE, Chen TC, Weinberg J, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Holick MF, Kiel DP. A higher dose of vitamin D reduces the risk of falls in nursing home residents: a randomized, multiple-dose study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007; 55:234-9.

16. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Orav EJ, Dawson-Hughes B. Effect of cholecalciferol plus calcium on falling in ambulatory older men and women: a 3-year randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166:424-30.

17. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Staehelin HB, et al. Fall prevention with supplemental and active forms of vitamin D: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2009; 339:b3692.

18. Sanders KM, Stuart AL, Williamson EJ; et al. Annual high-dose oral vitamin D and falls and fractures in older women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2010;303:1815-1822.

19. Giovannucci E. Expanding roles of vitamin D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009; 94:418-20.

20. Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Hollis BW, Rimm EB. 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of myocardial infarction in men: a prospective study. Arch Intern Med. 2008; 168:1174-80.

21. Pilz S, Marz W, Wellnitz B, et al. Association of vitamin D deficiency with heart failure and sudden cardiac death in a large cross-sectional study of patients referred for coronary angiography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008; 93:3927-35.

22. Pilz S, Dobnig H, Fischer JE, et al. Low vitamin D levels predict stroke in patients referred to coronary angiography. Stroke. 2008; 39:2611-3.

23. Wang TJ, Pencina MJ, Booth SL, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2008; 117:503-11.

24. Dobnig H, Pilz S, Scharnagl H, et al. Independent association of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Arch Intern Med. 2008; 168:1340-9.

25. Holick MF. The vitamin D deficiency pandemic and consequences for nonskeletal health: mechanisms of action. Mol Aspects Med. 2008; 29:361-8.

26. Garland CF, Garland FC. Do sunlight and vitamin D reduce the likelihood of colon cancer? Int J Epidemiol. 1980; 9:227-31.

27. Garland CF, Gorham ED, Mohr SB, Garland FC. Vitamin D for cancer prevention: global perspective. Ann Epidemiol. 2009; 19:468-83.

28. Yin L, Grandi N, Raum E, Haug U, Arndt V, Brenner H. Meta-analysis: longitudinal studies of serum vitamin D and colorectal cancer risk. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009; 30:113-25.

29. Wu K, Feskanich D, Fuchs CS, Willett WC, Hollis BW, Giovannucci EL. A nested case control study of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and risk of colorectal cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007; 99:1120-9.

30. Gorham ED, Garland CF, Garland FC, et al. Optimal vitamin D status for colorectal cancer prevention: a quantitative meta analysis. Am J Prev Med. 2007; 32:210-6.

31. Giovannucci E. Epidemiological evidence for vitamin D and colorectal cancer. J Bone Miner Res. 2007; 22 Suppl 2:V81-5.

32. Lin J, Zhang SM, Cook NR, Manson JE, Lee IM, Buring JE. Intakes of calcium and vitamin D and risk of colorectal cancer in women. Am J Epidemiol. 2005; 161:755-64.

33. Huncharek M, Muscat J, Kupelnick B. Colorectal cancer risk and dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy products: a meta-analysis of 26,335 cases from 60 observational studies. Nutr Cancer. 2009; 61:47-69.

34. Bertone-Johnson ER, Chen WY, Holick MF, et al. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005; 14:1991-7.

35. Garland CF, Gorham ED, Mohr SB, et al. Vitamin D and prevention of breast cancer: pooled analysis. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007; 103:708-11.

36. Lin J, Manson JE, Lee IM, Cook NR, Buring JE, Zhang SM. Intakes of calcium and vitamin D and breast cancer risk in women. Arch Intern Med. 2007; 167:1050-9.

37. Robien K, Cutler GJ, Lazovich D. Vitamin D intake and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Cancer Causes Control. 2007; 18:775-82.

38. Freedman DM, Chang SC, Falk RT, et al. Serum levels of vitamin D metabolites and breast cancer risk in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008; 17:889-94.

39. Munger KL, Levin LI, Hollis BW, Howard NS, Ascherio A. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of multiple sclerosis. JAMA. 2006; 296:2832-8.

40. Gillespie KM. Type 1 diabetes: pathogenesis and prevention. CMAJ. 2006; 175:165-70.

41. Hypponen E, Laara E, Reunanen A, Jarvelin MR, Virtanen SM. Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study. Lancet. 2001; 358:1500-3.

42. Zipitis CS, Akobeng AK. Vitamin D supplementation in early childhood and risk of type 1 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Dis Child. 2008; 93:512-7.

43. Hope-Simpson RE. The role of season in the epidemiology of influenza. J Hyg (Lond). 1981; 86:35-47.

44. Cannell JJ, Vieth R, Umhau JC, et al. Epidemic influenza and vitamin D. Epidemiol Infect. 2006; 134:1129-40.

45. Ginde AA, Mansbach JM, Camargo CA, Jr. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and upper respiratory tract infection in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med. 2009; 169:384-90.

46. Urashima M, Segawa T, Okazaki M, Kurihara M, Wada Y, Ida H. Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 91:1255-60. Epub 2010 Mar 10.

47. Zasloff M. Fighting infections with vitamin D. Nat Med. 2006; 12:388-90.

48. Nnoaham KE, Clarke A. Low serum vitamin D levels and tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol. 2008; 37:113-9.

49. Chocano-Bedoya P, Ronnenberg AG. Vitamin D and tuberculosis. Nutr Rev. 2009; 67:289-93.

50. Autier P, Gandini S. Vitamin D supplementation and total mortality: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2007; 167:1730-7.

51. Giovannucci E. Can vitamin D reduce total mortality? Arch Intern Med. 2007; 167:1709-10.

52. Dawson-Hughes B, Mithal A, Bonjour JP,  et al. IOF position statement: vitamin D recommendations for older adults. Osteoporos Int. 2010. 21:1151-4.

53. Canadian Cancer Society.  Canadian Cancer Society Announces Vitamin D Recommendation. 2007. Accessed March 24, 2011.

54. National Academies. Press Release: IOM Report Sets New Dietary Intake Levels for Calcium and Vitamin D To Maintain Health and Avoid Risks Associated With Excess. November 30, 2010. Accessed March 24, 2011.

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The aim of the Harvard School of Public Health Nutrition Source is to provide timely information on diet and nutrition for clinicians, allied health professionals, and the public. The contents of this Web site are not intended to offer personal medical advice. You should seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this Web site. The information does not mention brand names, nor does it endorse any particular products.

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Vitamina D – contra envelhecimento e contra a gripe suína

Vitamina D – contra envelhecimento e contra a gripe suína

Organização Mundial da Saúde confirma falsa pandemia da Gripe Infuenza H1N1

04/02/2013 — Celso Galli Coimbra

http://biodireitomedicina.wordpress.com/?s=gripe

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Esta notícia é de junho de 2010, e até hoje você continua sendo enganado pela Medicina & Indústria farmacêutica (assista o vídeo no final) !

__

“A OMS confirmou que o vírus H1N1 é o que continua circulando de maneira predominante no mundo, é MENOS nefasto do que se temia e com uma taxa de mortalidade MENOR inclusive que a da gripe estacional.

A gripe suína causou algo mais de 18 mil mortes em um ano. No mesmo período, a gripe estacional causou 500 mil mortes.”

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0000000sun

A vitamina d recentemente tem vindo a fazer manchetes com uma série de benefícios desde a ajuda contra o envelhecimento, reduzindo o risco de câncer, prevenindo demência e agora os testes estão em andamento para ver se também pode ajudar a combater a gripe suína. http://sunshinevitamin.org:80/

A Agência de saúde pública do Canadá (PHAC) revelou que estará realizando testes para verificar os níveis sanguíneos de vitamina D em contraste com pessoas que tiveram os males da gripe suína.

Um artigo publicado no Toronto Globe & Mail informou que a Agência de saúde pública do Canadá irá medir os níveis de vitamina d no sangue dos pacientes H1N1 e comparar os níveis com os das pessoas não infectadas.

“A existência de um link para a vitamina significa que as pessoas podem reduzir as probabilidades de serem lesadas pelo novo bug gripe por simplesmente usarem um suplemento de baixo custo”

“Os cientistas há muito tempo estão pensando sobre uma possível ligação entre a vitamina d e gripe por causa das observações marcantes em ambos os hemisférios Norte e Sul de que a gripe é principalmente uma doença de Inverno.”.

A vitamina d é necessária para a absorção e utilização do cálcio e fósforo. É importante para o crescimento normal dos ossos e dentes. É uma vitamina lipossolúveis e tem propriedades de vitaminas e hormonas. No tratamento e na prevenção dos cânceres de cólon e de mama, hipocalcemia, osteoartrite e osteoporose, esta vitamina é muito importante e também é necessária para a função de tireóide e coagulação sanguínea normal.

D2, ou Ergocalciferol, diferentemente da D3 (colecalciferol), não é produzido pelo corpo. Pode ser encontrada em plantas em pequena quantidade e pode ser tomado como um suplemento.


D3 (colecalciferol) é a fonte natural de vitamina d
. É a substância feita em grandes quantidades na pele quando a luz solar UVB atinge a pele nua. Acredita-se ser a forma mais potente de vitamina d.
Infelizmente, onde o sol é escasso e no mundo urbano moderno, as pessoas tendem a ter grandes deficiências de vitamina d. É onde os suplementos podem ajudar.

Deficincias de vitamina D:

  • Perda de apetite
  • Sensação de queimação na garganta & boca
  • Diarreia
  • Insônia
  • Problemas visuais
  • Perda de peso

Fontes de vitamina d

  • Óleos de fígado de peixe
  • Sardinha
  • Salmão
  • Peixes de água salgada gordos
  • Manteiga e produtos lácteos
  • Jugos de ovo
  • Óleo de fígado de bacalhau
  • Batatas-doces e óleos vegetais
  • LUZ SOLAR
  •  

A Agência de saúde federal advertiu que há uma relação causal entre não ter um nível alto de vitamina d no Sangue e os riscos da gripe, está provada, e é dito que a vitamina d pode oferecer a promessa de reduzir a gravidade das infecções.

Um número de investigadores universitários e hospitalares, em conjunto com a Agência, começou a pesquisar o possível papel da vitamina d e da gravidade dos sintomas de gripe no ano passado, bem antes que o surto atual começasse no México nesta primavera.

Mas a Agência disse que adaptou este estudo contínuo para o surto de H1N1. Como parte da investigação, os pesquisadores também estão a examinar se a composição genética de uma pessoa tem algo a ver com a intensidade da gripe que experimentam.

Embora não se saiba muito sobre a total capacidade da vitamina d para inibir e atenuar os efeitos da gripe suína, a Agência está afirmando que realmente é promissor usar a vitamina d na luta contra a nova pandemia.

Na década de 1940, pesquisadores, fazendo experiências com ratos, constataram que aqueles que receberam dieta pobre em vitamina d eram mais suscetíveis a uma infecção de gripe suína experimental do que aqueles que receberam quantidades adequadas do hormonio imunoregulador, de acordo com o correio electrónico da Agência.

A razão de a vitamina d poder ser capaz de lutar contra a gripe não é divulgada, mas a hipótese predominante é que o nutriente é capaz de fortalecer o sistema imunológico, permitindo que pessoas infectadas fiquem livres das doenças. A vitamina d foi encontrada, por exemplo, para oferecer proteção contra a tuberculose.

A evidência é esmagadora de que a vitamina d está fazendo melhor, no combate às entidades estrangeiras que atacam o sistema imunológico

 

adaptado de

http://www.eltorreon.com/vitamina-d-lutas-envelhecimento-e-agora-talvez-a-gripe-suina.html

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Vitamin D Deficiency – Michael F. Holick, M.D., Ph.D.

Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra

por Celso Galli Coimbra

https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLeqEGmvbpULN2NfNfnLU6bYse4fp9alQS

Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra – Esclerose múltipla e vitamina D – 2 de 2 – 28.01.13 – TV Mundi

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LGqg2-PiO8M&list=PLeqEGmvbpULN2NfNfnLU6bYse4fp9alQS&index=1

 

Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra – Esclerose múltipla e vitamina D – 1 de 2 – 28.01.13 – TV Mundi

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hv6tD3B0Nlo&list=PLeqEGmvbpULN2NfNfnLU6bYse4fp9alQS&index=2
Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra – Doenças Autoimunes e Vitamina D

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4uJt1361aGw&list=PLeqEGmvbpULN2NfNfnLU6bYse4fp9alQS&index=3

Vitamina D – Sem Censura – Dr. Cicero Galli Coimbra e Daniel Cunha

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cIwIWim4hNM&list=PLeqEGmvbpULN2NfNfnLU6bYse4fp9alQS&index=44

Algumas perguntas sobre o Hormônio-Vitamina D

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rEC3f_aHi_M&list=PL301EAE2D5602A758&feature=player_detailpage

 

Mais de 10 anos com o tratamento com vitamina D p/ esclerose múltipla

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fQN32qR_M2Y&list=PLeqEGmvbpULN2NfNfnLU6bYse4fp9alQS&index=5

 

Vitamina D – Por uma outra terapia

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=erAgu1XcY-U&list=PLeqEGmvbpULN2NfNfnLU6bYse4fp9alQS&index=6

 

Informações médicas sobre a prevenção e tratamento de doenças neurodegenerativas e autoimunes

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yRQkITHjZ5k&list=PLeqEGmvbpULN2NfNfnLU6bYse4fp9alQS&index=7

Vitamina D pode combater males que mais matam pessoas no mundo

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qGS-o1D-s3I&list=PLeqEGmvbpULN2NfNfnLU6bYse4fp9alQS&index=8

Jornal Nacional – Paciente recupera-se de Parkinson

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TTSOHBDbaLU&list=PLeqEGmvbpULN2NfNfnLU6bYse4fp9alQS&index=9

 

Morte Encefálica: a verdade sobre o teste da apnéia na declaração de morte no Brasil

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=egD3g9K1qY8&list=PLeqEGmvbpULN2NfNfnLU6bYse4fp9alQS&index=10

 

Morte encefálica – é prognóstico, não é diagnóstico

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4WOPp_2r_OU&list=PLeqEGmvbpULN2NfNfnLU6bYse4fp9alQS&index=11

Altos níveis do Hormônio-Vitamina D reduzem o risco de 19 tipos de câncer – Dr William Grant

https://www.youtube.com/watch?list=PLeqEGmvbpULN2NfNfnLU6bYse4fp9alQS&v=n0HmGAF8Dr4&feature=player_detailpage

 

Vitamina D e Câncer – Considerações Finais – Vitamin D and Cancer – Closing Remarks

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=o2fzGJoNBk4

Vitamina D – Reportagem com Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra e Daniel Cunha

http://www.youtube.com/watch?list=PLeqEGmvbpULN2NfNfnLU6bYse4fp9alQS&feature=player_detailpage&v=J3UvUK3_u0o

Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra explica Mal de Alzheimer e sua relação com o Hormônio-Vitamina D

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=v9fREuMywNo

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Review Article01m hc

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra070553

Vitamin D Deficiency

Michael F. Holick, M.D., Ph.D.

N Engl J Med 2007; 357:266-281July 19, 2007DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra070553

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Once foods in the United States were fortified with vitamin D, rickets appeared to have been conquered, and many considered major health problems from vitamin D deficiency resolved. But vitamin D deficiency is common. This review considers the role of vitamin D in skeletal and nonskeletal health and suggests strategies for the prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency.

Supported in part by grants from the National Institutes of Health (M01RR00533 and AR36963) and the UV Foundation.

Dr. Holick reports receiving honoraria from Merck, Eli Lilly, and Procter & Gamble and consulting fees from Quest Diagnostics, Amgen, Novartis, and Procter & Gamble. No other potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

I thank Dr. Farhad Chimeh for his helpful review of an earlier version of this manuscript and Donna Gendron and Lorrie MacKay for their secretarial assistance.

Source Information

From the Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Nutrition, and Diabetes, the Vitamin D, Skin, and Bone Research Laboratory, Boston University Medical Center, Boston.

Address reprint requests to Dr. Holick at Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany St., M-1013, Boston, MA 02118, or at mfholick@bu.edu.

——

Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra, fundador e Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade, medico neurologista, Phd., M.D., professor na Universidade Federal de São Paulo

cool-photography-sun-surf-surfing-Favim.com-138479Arquivos em Objeto Dignidade

Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra, fundador e Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade, medico neurologista, Phd., M.D., professor na Universidade Federal de São Paulo

 

·       Algumas perguntas sobre o Hormônio-Vitamina D

———-

Como funciona e qual é a relação entre vitamina D e proteção ao câncer

Vitamina D – Sem Censura – Dr. Cicero Galli Coimbra e Daniel Cunha

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cIwIWim4hNM&list=PLeqEGmvbpULN2NfNfnLU6bYse4fp9alQS&index=44

Altos níveis do Hormônio-Vitamina D reduzem o risco de 19 tipos de câncer – Dr William Grant

https://www.youtube.com/watch?list=PLeqEGmvbpULN2NfNfnLU6bYse4fp9alQS&v=n0HmGAF8Dr4&feature=player_detailpage

 Vitamina D e Câncer – Considerações Finais – Vitamin D and Cancer – Closing Remarks

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=o2fzGJoNBk4

 

Como funciona e qual é a relação entre vitamina D e proteção ao câncer

 

Autor(a):       Rita de Cássia Borges de Castro

Data:             09/11/2012 15:10:00

http://www.nutritotal.com.br/perguntas/?acao=bu&id=695&categoria=16
Como funciona e qual é a relação entre vitamina D e proteção ao câncer?
A vitamina D tem sido associada com a prevenção de várias doenças crônicas, incluindo diversos tipos de câncer, como colorretal, mama, próstata e pele, além da relação com a manutenção da homeostase do cálcio  a saúde óssea.A exposição solar, através dos raios UVB (ultravioleta B), induz na pele a síntese vitamina D pela conversão de 7-deidrocolesterol em vitamina D3 (colecalciferol ou pré-vitamina D3). A vitamina D pode ser obtida pela dieta através do colecalciferol, de origem animal e o ergocalciferol (vitamina D2), de origem vegetal. As principais fontes naturais de vitamina D são peixes como salmão, atum e cavala, seguido de fígado, gema de ovo, queijo e cogumelos. Existem também diversos alimentos fortificados com vitamina D sintética, incluindo leite e produtos lácteos, suco de laranja, cereais matinais, barras de cereais, fórmulas infantis e margarinas.

A vitamina D proveniente da dieta é absorvida no intestino delgado na forma lipossolúvel incorporada a quilomícron. No fígado, esse complexo se liga a uma proteína-ligante de vitamina D e é metabolizado, juntamente com a vitamina D3 sintetizada pela pele. A vitamina D sofre hidroxilação na posição C-25 pela enzima hepática 25-hidroxilase, resultando na formação da 25-hidroxicolecalciferol (25(OH)D3 ou calcidiol), principal forma circulante da vitamina D. Nos rins ocorre uma segunda hidroxilação na posição C-1 do calcidiol através da enzima 1-alfa-hidroxilase (CYP27B1), formando o 1,25(OH)2D3, a forma mais ativa da vitamina D. Os níveis séricos de 25(OH)D é a principal forma circulante de vitamina D, pois sua meia vida é consideravelmente mais longa do que a da 1,25(OH)2D3 (15 dias contra 15 horas).

Diversos mecanismos moleculares têm sido propostos para os efeitos protetores da vitamina D no câncer. Muitos desses mecanismos estão relacionados com a produção de 1,25(OH)2D3 por tecidos que possuem a enzima CYP27B1, como a próstata, cólon, mama e pâncreas. Nas células destes tecidos, a 1,25(OH)2D3 liga-se ao receptor da vitamina D (VDR) em que, no núcleo celular formam um complexo para influenciar a expressão de genes envolvidos na regulação da inflamação, apoptose de células tumorais, diminuição da proliferação, diferenciação celular e imunomodulação. Estudos têm verificado que uma maior expressão do receptor de vitamina D está diretamente relacionada na modulação da proliferação e diferenciação celular, bem como na indução de apoptose em células tumorais.

Diversos estudos in vitro, in vivo e estudos epidemiológicos demonstram um papel importante da vitamina D especialmente na redução da incidência do câncer colo-retal. Pesquisadores verificaram em uma metanálise que indivíduos com os níveis séricos de 25(OH)D3 ≥ 82 nmol/l tiveram uma incidência 50% menor de câncer colorretal do que aqueles com níveis ≤ 30 nmol/l.

A relação entre os níveis séricos de vitamina D e o risco de desenvolver alguns tipos de câncer foi revisada em 2008 por Holick, no qual o autor sugere uma redução de 30 a 50% do risco de desenvolver câncer colorretal, mama e próstata, caso haja um aumento de vitamina D, através da ingestão diária de 1000 UI ao dia ou da exposição solar, elevando os níveis séricos de 25(OH)D3 para mais de 30 ng/mL.

Outro estudo verificou que a ingestão de alimentos enriquecidos com vitamina D, totalizando 400 UI/dia, foi associada à redução do risco de desenvolver câncer de mama. Pesquisas sugerem que os níveis séricos de 25(OH)D3 ou 1,25 (OH)2D3 parecem menores em pacientes com câncer de mama avançado ou metastático em relação àquelas pacientes com doenças em estágio inicial. Além disso, existem evidências que baixos níveis sérios de 25(OH)D3 ao diagnóstico estejam relacionados a um pior prognóstico, isto é, maior chance de recidiva da doença.

Em resumo, as evidências são bastante convincentes de que existe uma relação entre níveis inadequados de vitamina D com o aumento do risco de câncer e/ou a progressão do tumor. Entretanto, ainda são necessários mais estudos para essa afirmação e não é recomendada suplementação com altas doses de vitamina D com o intuito de prevenir o câncer. Os pesquisadores sugerem que a ingestão de vitamina D seja em torno de 600 UI (15 mcg) por dia, conforme as novas DRI (Dietary Reference Intakes), publicadas em 2010.

Leia mais

Novas recomendações para cálcio e vitamina D

Suplementação de vitamina D com cálcio diminui mortalidade em idosos

Quais pacientes podem se beneficiar do uso de suplementos de cálcio e vitamina D?

Bibliografia (s)Davis CD, Milner JA. Nutrigenomics, vitamin D and cancer prevention. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2011;4(1):1-11.

Fleet JC, DeSmet M, Johnson R, Li Y. Vitamin D and cancer: a review of molecular mechanisms. Biochem J. 2012;441(1):61-76.

Toner CD, Davis CD, Milner JA. The vitamin D and cancer conundrum: aiming at a moving target. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110(10):1492-500.

McCullough ML, Bostick RM, Mayo TL. Vitamin D gene pathway polymorphisms and risk of colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer. Annu Rev Nutr. 2009;29:111-32.

Fatigue and Muscle Weakness From a Vitamin D Deficiency

Fatigue and Muscle Weakness From a Vitamin D Deficiency

01a

Jun 19, 2011 | By Pam Murphy

Pam Murphy has been writing fitness, childcare and business-related articles since 2009. She is an active member of the National Association for Family Child Care and contributes to various websites. Murphy is a licensed childcare professional and holds a Bachelor of Arts in English from the University of West Georgia.

Photo Credit Comstock/Comstock/Getty Images

Vitamin D is fat-soluble, meaning that it relies on dietary fat to assist in its absorption. Vitamin D in turn assists with calcium absorption, making it an essential component in healthy bone development. While dietary sources of vitamin D are limited, exposure to the sun for 10 to 15 minutes three times weekly helps ensure adequate intake. If you don’t get enough vitamin D through your diet, sun exposure and dietary supplements, you may experience signs of deficiency in your bones and muscles.

Symptoms

Muscle aches and weakness, as well as bone pain, may be caused by vitamin D deficiency, according to Merck. However, during the early stages of vitamin D deficiency, symptoms may be subtle and difficult to detect. Ongoing vitamin D deficiency can lead to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Signs of rickets in children include growth delay; pain in the spine, pelvis and legs; weak muscles; bowed legs and other skeletal abnormalities. Osteomalacia symptoms include pain or dull aching in the ribs, spine, hips, legs or pelvis, muscle weakness, impaired mobility and a loss of muscle tone, explains the Mayo Clinic.

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Who’s at Risk?

While vitamin D deficiency can affect anyone with restricted sun exposure and limited sources of dietary vitamin D, the elderly and obese are generally at higher risk, as are individuals who have undergone gastric bypass surgery. Conditions such as Crohn’s disease, cystic fibrosis and liver disease that interfere with the body’s ability to absorb dietary fat are also at increased risk for deficiency, since vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin. Individuals with dark skin and babies who are exclusively breastfed may also be at increased risk, according to the Office of Dietary Supplements.

Vitamin D Sources

Dietary sources of vitamin D include salmon, tuna, eggs and fortified foods such as milk, breakfast cereal, margarine, orange juice and yogurt. The recommended dietary allowance for vitamin D for children and for adults up to age 70 is 600 IU–the equivalent of 15mcg–daily. After age 70, the recommendation increases to 800 IU, or 20mcg, daily.

Considerations

If you experience muscle fatigue, bone pain or otherwise suspect a vitamin D deficiency, talk with your doctor about diagnosis and treatment. While supplements may help you get your intake up to healthy levels, too much vitamin D may be dangerous. Anorexia, irregular heartbeat or rhythm, excessive urination and unexplained weight loss are possible indications of vitamin D toxicity, according to the Office of Dietary Supplements. Because of the relationship between vitamin D and calcium absorption, excess vitamin D may also lead to unhealthy levels of calcium, potentially causing damage to your heart, kidneys or blood vessels.

References

Article reviewed by Lisa Michael Last updated on: Jun 19, 2011
Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/474357-fatigue-and-muscle-weakness-from-a-vitamin-d-deficiency/#ixzz2HmEe8tm4

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Timing of birth and risk of multiple sclerosis: population based study

Timing of birth and risk of multiple sclerosis: population based study

Paper

http://www.bmj.com/content/330/7483/120

BMJ 2005; 330 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.38301.686030.63 (Published 13 January 2005)

Cite this as: BMJ 2005;330:120

  1. Cristen J Willer, postdoctoral fellow1,
  2. David A Dyment, doctoral student2,
  3. A Dessa Sadovnick, professor3,
  4. Peter M Rothwell, professor4,
  5. T Jock Murray, professor of medicine5,
  6. George C Ebers (george.ebers@clneuro.ox.ac.uk), action research professor,for the Canadian Collaborative Study Group (george.ebers@clneuro.ox.ac.uk)4

Author Affiliations

  1. 1.      1Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
  2. 2.      2Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN
  3. 3.      3Department of Medical Genetics and Faculty of Medicine (Division of Neurology), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2B5
  4. 4.      4Department of Clinical Neurology, Radcliffe Infirmary, University of Oxford, OX2 6HE
  5. 5.      5Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 4R2
  6. Correspondence to: G C Ebers
  • Accepted 3 November 2004

 

Abstract

Objectives To determine if risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with month of birth in countries in the northern hemisphere and if factors related to month of birth interact with genetic risk.

Design Population based study with population and family based controls and a retrospective cohort identified from death certificates. A post hoc pooled analysis was carried out for large northern datasets including Sweden and Denmark.

Setting 19 MS clinics in major cities across Canada (Canadian collaborative project on the genetic susceptibility to multiple sclerosis); incident cases of MS from a population based study in the Lothian and Border regions of Scotland; and death records from the UK Registrar General.

Populations 17 874 Canadian patients and 11 502 British patients with multiple sclerosis.

Main outcome measure Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.

Results In Canada (n = 17 874) significantly fewer patients with MS were born in November compared with controls from the population census and unaffected siblings. These observations were confirmed in a dataset of British patients (n = 11 502), in which there was also an increase in the number of births in May. A pooled analysis of datasets from Canada, Great Britain, Denmark, and Sweden (n = 42 045) showed that significantly fewer (8.5%) people with MS were born in November and significantly more (9.1%) were born in May. For recent incident data, the effect of month of birth was most evident in Scotland, where MS prevalence is the highest.

Conclusions Month of birth and risk of MS are associated, more so in familial cases, implying interactions between genes and environment that are related to climate. Such interactions may act during gestation or shortly after birth in individuals born in the northern countries studied.

Introduction

Classic studies of twins, adoptees, half siblings, and families14 have led to a widely accepted notion that multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex trait in which susceptibility is determined by the interplay of genes and environmental factors. Environment seems to influence risk at a population level, but  specific details remain unclear. The most striking clue to the role of environment has always been the gradient with latitude, which is most obvious in Australia, where the risk in temperate Tasmania is fivefold that in subtropical Queensland5 6 but where ethnic origins are relatively uniform. The gradient is also seen in several other countries, including New Zealand7 and the United States.8 The role of environment is seen in twin studies, which report a 70-90% discordance in identical twins.1 Studies of migrants indicate that risk for MS is strongly associated with place of residence early in life,6 9 but it is not easy to retrospectively study gestational, perinatal, and childhood periods in adult onset diseases. In Canada, the risk for a dizygotic twin of someone with MS is almost twice that for a full non-twin sibling.1 This may implicate environmental factor(s) such as shared timing of gestation or birth, or both. Furthermore, the study of half siblings has shown a maternal effect that could be environmental in nature.5

Studies of month of birth and risk of MS have been carried out in several cohorts of people with MS, but sample sizes, ethnic groups, and statistical methods differed for each study and findings have been inconsistent.1014 Although significant differences in month of birth compared with population based controls have been reported, they have not been for the same months.

 

Methods

Data on month of birth along with detailed information on demographics and clinical and family history were collected as part of the population based longitudinal Canadian collaborative project on genetic susceptibility to multiple sclerosis,15 in 17 874 patients with MS. The first control group comprised all the recorded births in Canada from 1926 to 1970 (Statistics Canada). The months of birth in this group were used to calculate the expected numbers of births per month among patients with MS. A second control group comprised unaffected siblings of people with MS.

As Scandinavian studies have shown an increase of MS in people born in spring, we hypothesised a similar increase, but we analysed each month separately. We compared the births in a single month with the other 11 months for cases and controls (population or siblings) using a 2×2 χ2test. For months for which we found no previous evidence of association, we corrected the P value for the 12 comparisons using Bonferroni correction.

For the matched affected-unaffected sibling group, we also applied McNemar’s test. This test compares the number of pairs discordant for birth in a particular month by comparing the number of pairs where only the affected individual was born in that month and the unaffected individual was not (Na) with the number of pairs in which the unaffected individual was born in that month and the affected individual was not (Nu). Under the null hypothesis of no association with disease, the statistic (Na-Nu)2/(Na + Nu) follows a χ distribution with 1df.

We obtained datasets of patients from England, Wales (n = 8702), and Scotland (n = 2356) from death certificates that mentioned “multiple sclerosis” and were registered in 1979-91. The controls for this sample were obtained from randomly selected death certificates of individuals born in the same year and country, with no mention of “multiple sclerosis.” We also studied newly diagnosed cases from a population based study of the incidence of MS in the Lothian and Border regions of Scotland performed in 1992-5 inclusive (n = 444)16 and used Scottish population birth records from 1940 to 1980 as controls (General Register Office Scotland).

 

Results

We compared the numbers of individuals with MS born in each month versus the other 11 months with population based controls. In the Canadian dataset (n = 17 874), 8.5% fewer people with MS were born in November; this was significant even after we corrected for the 12 monthly comparisons (1257 observed v 1373 expected, χ2= 10.67, P = 0.0011 or P = 0.013 with Bonferroni correction) (table 1). The peak birth month for people with MS was offset six months, in May, though this was not significant (P = 0.15). We found no difference within Canadian patients by sex, site of ascertainment, or decade of birth. Population control results, weighted to match patients with MS for year of birth, were similar to non-weighted controls (not shown). Among 67 Canadian patients with MS born in the southern hemisphere, eight were born in November and two in May, suggesting a reversal of the pattern in northern countries.

View this table:

Table 1

Observed number of people in Canada with multiple sclerosis (MS) compared with expected number, according to month of birth

When we compared the dataset of British patients with MS, ascertained through death certificates and from incident cases (n = 11 502), with controls obtained via similar methods we found significantly fewer people with MS had been born in November (10.0%, χ2= 6.80, uncorrected P = 0.009) and significantly more had been born in May (16.3%,χ2= 18.02, uncorrected P < 0.0001, corrected P = 0.0003) (table 2). The number born in December was also significantly lower (χ2= 4.8, P = 0.028), but this was not significant when we corrected for multiple comparisons. We combined the data for the 8702 cases from England and Wales according to death certificates, the 2356 cases from Scotland according to death certificates, and the 444 Scottish incident cases because each group had appropriately matched controls, all patients were from the same geographic region, and the confidence intervals of the odds ratios for May and November in each group substantially overlapped (odds ratio 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 1.44, for cases from England and Wales; 1.17, 0.94 to 1.47, for Scottish death certificate cases; and 1.89, 1.09 to 3.28, for Scottish incident cases).

View this table:

Table 2

Observed number of people in Great Britain with multiple sclerosis (MS) compared with expected number, according to month of birth

We added Danish10 (n = 6276) and Swedish11 (n = 6393) samples to our Canadian (n = 17 874) and British samples (n = 11 502; total n = 42 045). In this combined sample significantly more people with MS were born in May (9.1%) and significantly fewer were born in November (8.5%) (uncorrected and corrected P values for May and November were all < 0.0001) (fig 1, table 3). This represents a 19% (odds ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.25) decreased risk of MS for those born in November compared with those born in May.

 

View larger version:

00

Fig 1

Pooled analysis of observed/expected births in people with multiple sclerosis in Canadian, British, Danish, and Swedish studies (n=42 045) with 95% confidence intervals

View this table:

Table 3

Observed number of people in northern hemisphere (Canada, Great Britain, Denmark, and Sweden) with multiple sclerosis (MS) compared with expected number, according to month of birth

In the Canadian dataset, we used a second control group of matched unaffected siblings. We had complete data on 9248 unaffected siblings from 7450 patients with MS. Index cases were matched with one non-twin sibling, which resulted in a dataset of 4232 affected-unaffected sibling pairs. We observed a slight correlation in the month of birth for closely spaced siblings, but not among more distantly spaced offspring (data not shown). To account for this effect, when there was more than one unaffected sibling we selected the one furthest in age from the index case. This group showed no significant correlation for month of birth in sibling pairs (P = 0.30). We compared affected siblings with their matched unaffected siblings using McNemar’s test for November birth and observed 273 pairs in which the affected member of the pair was born in November and 343 where the unaffected sibling was born in November. The result was significant for difference in November births (P = 0.0048). Selection of the unaffected sibling closest in age also yielded a significant difference (P = 0.0018).

We tested whether the environmental component related to month of birth might contribute to familial risk, perhaps by interacting with susceptibility genes predictably enriched in families with multiple cases of MS.15 Among affected people with a family history of MS we found 16.2% fewer were born in November relative to population controls compared with 3.0% fewer among those with no family history of MS (χ2= 3.92, P = 0.050). We found no difference when we divided affected individuals into fourths according to age of onset (data not shown).

We also compared the odds ratio for increased risk of MS for people born in May compared with November. We used incident cases only to allow consistency among the countries examined. The highest odds ratio for May/November risk was in Scotland (1.89, 1.09 to 3.28), followed by Denmark (1.22, 1.08 to 1.38), Sweden (1.18, 1.05 to 1.33), and Canada (1.13, 1.05 to 1.22) (fig 2).

0001

Fig 2

Odds ratios for people with multiple sclerosis being born in May/November among incident cases in northern hemisphere countries

Discussion

Among Canadian patients with MS 8.5% fewer than expected were born in November compared with other months and slightly but not significantly more were born in May. This finding was replicated in British patients with MS, where the numbers born in both months were significantly different from controls. A pooled analysis including results from previously published Danish10 and Swedish11 studies confirmed the May peak and November nadir. This overall dataset of patients with MS born in the northern hemisphere showed a 13% increase in risk of MS for those born in May compared with November (95% confidence interval 5% to 22%).

We used unaffected siblings from the Canadian collaborative project15 as a second control group, eliminating potential confounding by ethnic differences in seasonal birth patterns or by survival being influenced by month of birth. The unaffected sibling controls confirmed and extended the findings as they also differed from population controls in a direction opposite to that of their affected siblings. This may be viewed as internal confirmation of the effect of month of birth on risk.

The results were derived from more than 42 000 patients with MS from northern countries, where MS has a high prevalence. Canada, Denmark,10 Great Britain, and Sweden11 each have large databases and distinct seasons, and nearly all cases of MS in Canada are identified.15

We have conclusively shown the association between month of birth and risk of MS in northern countries. The sample size, internal replications, and selection of appropriate controls indicate that this is unlikely to be an artefact. Our pooled data show that being born in May is associated with increased risk, and the Canadian and British datasets clearly show that people born in November have the lowest risk. Correlation of specific years of increased risk related to season with features such as ultraviolet radiation, temperature, or weather patterns may help to elucidate this effect further.

Month of birth and risk of MS has been examined in other populations. The Danish study found that more people with MS had been born in March, April, May, and June, and a Swedish study showed an association with March, May, and July.11 When these data were combined, more people with MS had been born in the five consecutive months from March to July,2 although the Swedish study did not directly confirm the Danish findings. Smaller studies in cohorts from Sicily,13 the Netherlands, Japan, and Hungary14 were not consistent, but a study from Vancouver showed the same degree of effect in a smaller sample size.12 Relatively small sample sizes may not have sufficient power to disentangle meaningful seasonal influences.1417 None of these studies can be considered as definitive.

Although the birth month results in MS now seem clear, the interpretation is not. May and November show significance in the pooled analysis and the peaks of altered risk are exactly six months apart. Although the reduced risk for November seems to exist also for December births in some datasets, the changes in risk are remarkably discrete. The abrupt change in risk by month suggests a threshold effect for both increased and decreased risk, something that is not easily explained. These observed changes may partly explain the increased risk of MS in second generation Asian and Caribbean migrants to the United Kingdom—that is, moving to the United Kingdom does not changes their genes but something in the climate may do so.18

 

Possible explanations of association

The risk factor(s) responsible for the effect of timing of birth must vary seasonally and probably interacts with development of the central nervous system or immune systems, or both. Among candidate factors are maternal folate,19 correlates of infant birth weight and virus infection, and factors also implicated in the effect of season of birth on schizophrenia.17 Undoubtedly other cyclic interactions remain to be identified.

Previous findings of associations between higher latitudes and risk of MS (Sardinians and Sami being notable exceptions) have suggested that exposure to the sun may account for the geographical variation of MS.20 Most biologically active vitamin D is generated in the skin with exposure to ultraviolet radiation21 and an increased risk of MS related to month of birth could reflect well documented seasonal deficiency in maternal concentrations of vitamin D.22 Vitamin D treatment reduces severity of symptoms and progression in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is a mouse model of MS.23 Furthermore, exposure to sun during childhood is associated with a reduced risk of multiple sclerosis,24 and this may also extend to timing of birth. If the excess of MS in those born in May is related to maternal vitamin D deficiency, studies on blood concentrations suggest that the end of the second or the third trimester are the crucial time points.22 Vitamin D receptors are present in the brain, and gestational vitamin D deficiency has striking effects on brain development in experimental animals.25

 

What is already known on this topic

Susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) is influenced by genetic and environmental factors

An association with latitude in early life has been shown in migrants from regions of differing risk

A maternal parent of origin effect shown in half siblings with MS from Canada suggested that environment acts in gestation or the neonatal period to determine risk for this adult onset disease

 

What this study adds

In northern countries the risk of MS is greater for people born in May and lower for those born in November

This effect is greater in Scotland, where the population prevalence of this disease is highest

These findings support suggestions from studies in twins and half siblings that the gestational or neonatal environment, or both, influence the risk of MS later in life

The observed May/November birth ratio in living incident cases from Scotland (1.89), Denmark (1.22),10 Sweden (1.18),11 and Canada (1.13) decreases in order of population prevalence (fig 2). This suggests that the seasonal birth effect may be connected with environmental factors determining prevalence rates. These are powerful, seem to act at a broad population level,13 and may hold the key to disease prevention. The “parent of origin” effect, recently reported in MS,5 may suggest that, at least in part, environmental factors are maternally mediated and influence development in the nervous or immune system, or both.

 

Acknowledgments

We thank Irene Yee, Maria Criscuoli, Randy Holmes, Kevin Atkins, and Don Templer (at Alliant International University) for their help with this study and James Gowans, Rodney Phillips, Anne Spurkland, Pierre Duquette, Ed Burton, Stacey Cherny, Iain Chalmers, and Michael Boehnke for help with the manuscript. We also thank the participants of the vitamin D workshop held in Toronto in April 2002 for valuable insight, discussion, and advice and Nina Jablonski and George Chaplin for sharing their expertise. The Canadian Collaborative Study Group includes D W Paty, S A Hashimoto, V Devonshire, J Hooge, J Oger, L Kastrukoff, and T Traboulsee (Vancouver); L Metz (Calgary); S Warren (Edmonton); W Hader (Saskatoon); R Nelson and M Freedman (Ottawa); D Brunet (Kingston); J Paulseth (Hamilton); G Rice and M Kremenchutzky (London); P O’Connor, T Gray, and M Hohol (Toronto); P Duquette and Y Lapierre (Montreal); J-P Bouchard (Quebec City); V Bhan and C Maxner (Halifax); and W Pryse-Phillips and M Stefanelli (St Johns).

 

Footnotes

  • Contributors GCE (guarantor) conceived the Canadian national network of MS clinics and its role in this study. ADS and GCE conceived this investigation and are the principal investigators of the Canadian collaborative study. GCE and ADS supervised the data collection and research. CJW and DAD did the primary analyses for the Canadian dataset, and PMR conceived the study and completed analyses of the UK dataset. CJW wrote the first draft, with subsequent revision from all authors. TJM provided a helpful suggestion for future research.
  • Funding This work was part of a larger project funded by the MS Society of Canada Scientific Research Foundation. CJW and DAD were supported bystudentships from the MS Society of Canada, during the time this study was mainly completed. ADS is a Michael Smith Distinguished Scholar.
  • Competing interests None declared
  • Ethical approval The study was approved by the University of Western Ontario and the University of British Columbia, which were the two main sites of data collection. Each Canadian MS clinic obtained ethical approval from their local review board.

 

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.The age-range of risk of developing multiple sclerosis: evidence from a migrant population in Australia.Brain2000; 123:96874.

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.Season of birth in multiple sclerosis.Acta Neurol Scand1992; 85:1079.

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——

Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

0 Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis 

Original Contribution | December 20, 2006

Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis FREE

 

Kassandra L. Munger, MSc; Lynn I. Levin, PhD, MPH; Bruce W. Hollis, PhD; Noel S. Howard, MD; Alberto Ascherio, MD, DrPH

[+-] Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Departments of Nutrition (Ms Munger and Dr Ascherio) and Epidemiology (Dr Ascherio), Harvard School of Public Health, and Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School (Dr Ascherio), Boston, Mass; Division of Preventive Medicine, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Md (Dr Levin); Departments of Pediatrics, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston (Dr Hollis); and Department of the Navy, Secretary of the Navy Council of Review Boards, Washington, DC (Dr Howard).

More Author Information

JAMA. 2006;296(23):2832-2838. doi:10.1001/jama.296.23.2832.

 

ABSTRACT

Context  Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that high levels of vitamin D, a potent immunomodulator, may decrease the risk of multiple sclerosis. There are no prospective studies addressing this hypothesis.

Objective  To examine whether levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are associated with risk of multiple sclerosis.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Prospective, nested case-control study among more than 7 million US military personnel who have serum samples stored in the Department of Defense Serum Repository. Multiple sclerosis cases were identified through Army and Navy physical disability databases for 1992 through 2004, and diagnoses were confirmed by medical record review. Each case (n = 257) was matched to 2 controls by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and dates of blood collection. Vitamin D status was estimated by averaging 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of 2 or more serum samples collected before the date of initial multiple sclerosis symptoms.

Main Outcome Measures  Odds ratios of multiple sclerosis associated with continuous or categorical levels (quantiles or a priori–defined categories) of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D within each racial/ethnic group.

Results  Among whites (148 cases, 296 controls), the risk of multiple sclerosis significantly decreased with increasing levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (odds ratio [OR] for a 50-nmol/L increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.97). In categorical analyses using the lowest quintile (<63.3 nmol/L) as the reference, the ORs for each subsequent quintile were 0.57, 0.57, 0.74, and 0.38 (P = .02 for trend across quintiles). Only the OR for the highest quintile, corresponding to 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels higher than 99.1 nmol/L, was significantly different from 1.00 (OR, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.75; P = .006). The inverse relation with multiple sclerosis risk was particularly strong for 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels measured before age 20 years. Among blacks and Hispanics (109 cases, 218 controls), who had lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels than whites, no significant associations between vitamin D and multiple sclerosis risk were found.

Conclusion  The results of our study suggest that high circulating levels of vitamin D are associated with a lower risk of multiple sclerosis.

Figures in this Article

a1

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is among the most common neurological diseases in young adults, affecting 350 000 individuals in the United States and 2 million worldwide.1 Prevailing thought is that MS is an autoimmune disorder whereby an unknown agent or agents triggers a T cell–mediated inflammatory attack, causing demyelination of central nervous system tissue.2

A striking feature of the global distribution of MS is a multifold increase in incidence with increasing latitude, both north and south of the equator.3 Genetic predisposition contributes to this variation,4 but the change in MS risk with migration among people of common ancestry5 strongly supports a role for environmental factors. One potential factor may be vitamin D,6– 9 a potent immunomodulator that in its hormonal form can prevent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS.10 Because food provides little vitamin D, the major source for most people is through skin exposure to sunlight.11 At latitudes of 42° or more (eg, Boston, Mass), in winter most UV-B radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere, and even prolonged sun exposure is insufficient to generate vitamin D.12 As a result, seasonal vitamin D deficiency is common.11

A protective effect of vitamin D on MS is supported by the reduced MS risk associated with sun exposure13– 14 and use of vitamin D supplements,15 but evidence remains inconclusive. In the present study, we examined prospectively for the first time whether high blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, a good marker of vitamin D availability to tissues,11 predict a lower risk of MS.

METHODS

This study has been approved by the institutional review boards of the Harvard School of Public Health and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, both of which waived the need for informed consent to use archived blood products and medical records.

Study Population

The study population includes more than 7 million active-duty US military personnel who have at least 1 serum sample stored in the Department of Defense Serum Repository (DoDSR). Since 1985, the DoDSR has collected and stored more than 30 million serum samples leftover from routine human immunodeficiency virus and worldwide deployment-related blood tests.16 Personnel generally provide 1 sample at entry into the military and, on average, every 2 years thereafter. All samples are cataloged and stored at −30°C.16

Case and Control Ascertainment

Multiple sclerosis case ascertainment within the military has been previously described.17 Briefly, active-duty personnel in the US Army and the US Navy (which includes the Marines) who were evaluated by their respective Physical Evaluation Boards for a diagnosis of MS between 1993 and 2004 (Army) or 1992 and 2004 (Navy) were identified by searching the Physical Evaluation Boards’ databases for members with the Veterans Administration Schedule for Rating Disabilities code for MS (code 8018). This search identified 515 potential MS cases. Medical records of the potential cases were reviewed and abstracted by 2 trained study personnel.

Cases included in this study were classified as either definite or probable MS. A case was definite if the final diagnosis in the medical record was made by a neurologist and specified as definite, clinically definite, or laboratory-supported definite MS,18 or if there was a history of 2 or more neurological attacks, a magnetic resonance imaging result consistent with MS, and a diagnosis of MS made by a neurologist. A case was considered probable if there was a neurologist’s diagnosis of probable, clinically probable, or laboratory-supported probable MS18 or at least 2 of the following: clinical history of 2 or more attacks, magnetic resonance imaging findings consistent with MS, and a diagnosis of MS made by a neurologist. Of the 515 cases reviewed, 315 had definite (n = 237) or probable (n = 78) MS and had at least 1 serum sample collected prior to their date of onset (the date of first neurological symptoms attributable to MS noted in the medical record)19; 83 of these 315 cases were included in our previous study on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and MS among Army personnel.17 For each case, we obtained up to 4 serum samples: 3 before the date of onset (the earliest and latest available, as well as a third sample collected between those 2) and 1 after the date of MS onset (the earliest available).

Controls were randomly selected from the DoDSR population, and 2 controls were matched to each case by age (±1 year), sex, race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, or other), dates of sample collection (±30 days, except for the sample collected after the date of MS onset), and branch of military service (Army, Navy, or Marines). Controls had to be on active duty on the date of onset of the matched case. Appropriate controls could not be found for 10 cases, which were therefore excluded from further analysis. Race/ethnicity status was provided by the Army Medical Surveillance Activity, based on categories defined by the Department of Defense independent from the investigators. Cases and controls were matched on race/ethnicity to control for confounding—blacks have a lower risk of MS than whites, likely because of genetic factors,20 and lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, mostly because of darker skin pigmentation, which decreases UV-B–induced subcutaneous production of vitamin D.21

Covariates

In addition to the matching factors, information was collected on latitude of place of residence at time of entry into the military. As in previous studies, latitude was attributed as follows: northern latitudes were states approximately 41° to 42° latitude or higher; middle latitudes, states between 37° and 41° latitude; southern latitudes, states approximately 37° latitude or lower; and outside of the continental United States (including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico).22 We also created a UV index variable from the state of residence at entry into the military using the average UV index by state for 1995 (the earliest available year) from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration23 and categorized as less than 5, 5 to less than 6, and 6 or higher. For consistency with the latitude variable, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico were not included in the UV index.

Although the latitude gradient in MS risk could be a result of a protective effect of vitamin D, latitudes at birth or in early childhood also correlate with socioeconomic status and age at infection with common viruses, which are potential risk factors for MS24 and, thus, could confound the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and MS. In our study population, place of birth or residence in childhood was not generally available. However, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels reflect recent UV exposure, and adjustment for latitude at entry into the military would be expected to remove any correlation that may exist between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and latitude at earlier ages.

The validity of the information on latitude of residence at entry into the military is supported by its expected correlation with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in samples collected prior to entry into the military (that is, at the time of application or initial screening), when the service member was likely to be residing in his/her state of entry. In these samples, among white controls (n = 87), mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels increased from 74.4 nmol/L in the northern latitudes to 81.4 nmol/L in the middle latitudes and to 90.6 nmol/L in the southern latitudes and from 71.3 nmol/L to 79.7 nmol/L and 89.9 nmol/L for UV index ratings of less than 5, 5 to less than 6, and 6 or higher, respectively. All the analyses presented were therefore adjusted for latitude of residence at entry. Adjusting for UV index as either a categorical or a continuous variable did not materially change the results.

Laboratory Analyses

25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured in the laboratory of B.W.H., as previously described.25 Briefly, 25-hydroxyvitamin D was extracted from each serum sample using acetonitrile, and a radioimmunoassay with an iodine I 125–labeled tracer was used to measure the amount of 25-hydroxyvitamin D.25 The serum samples were randomly sorted within each matched case-control triplet, and the laboratory was blinded to the case/control status of the samples. The intra-assay coefficient of variation, determined from blind quality control samples included with the study samples, ranged from 4.5% to 7.9% in different batches.

Statistical Analyses

All analyses were stratified by race/ethnicity because, as expected, whites had much higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels than blacks (see “Results” section). Because of small numbers, we combined Hispanic and other race/ethnicity determinations into 1 group. To remove extraneous variation in 25-hydroxyvitamin D due to season of blood collection and other sources, we regressed the 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels on the periodic function −sin(2ΠX/12)−cos(2ΠX/12), where X is month of sample collection,26 age at sample collection, sex, and laboratory assay batch. The residuals from this model were added to the sex-specific 25-hydroxyvitamin D means derived from the model to create an adjusted 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurement.

To obtain an integrated measure of long-term, preclinical 25-hydroxyvitamin D level for each individual, we calculated the average of these adjusted 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels from all the available samples, except for those collected after the onset of MS among cases. Because a single measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D may not fully reflect long-term vitamin D status, the analyses were restricted to the 257 cases and 514 matched controls who had at least two 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurements before MS onset.

Conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusting for latitude of residence at entry into the military, was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs).27 We modeled 25-hydroxyvitamin D level both as a continuous variable, to estimate its association with MS risk under a linear assumption, and in quantiles, to explore the dose-response relationship. Quintiles among whites and tertiles (because of the smaller sample size) among blacks were determined based on the distributions of average 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels among their respective controls. In tests for trend, the medians of the quintiles or tertiles were modeled as continuous variables.

We also conducted analyses classifying individuals into 5 a priori–defined categories of 25-hydroxyvitamin D by 25-nmol/L increments (<25, 25 to <50, 50 to <75, 75 to <100, or ≥100 nmol/L). However, because of small sample sizes in the lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D categories among the white and Hispanic/other groups, the first 3 categories were collapsed and used as the referent in those analyses, and because few blacks had 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels higher than 75 nmol/L, the category of 50 to less than 75 nmol/L was used as the referent in the black race–specific analysis. Repeated-measures linear models were used to compare changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D level over time among cases. The statistical significance level was set at P<.05 for 2-tailed tests.

Epstein-Barr virus antibody titers were strongly associated with risk of MS in analyses conducted in a subset of 83 cases and 166 controls from this population17 but were not correlated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (data not shown) and, thus, are unlikely to confound the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and MS. For this reason and because EBV serologic results were unavailable for most cases and controls in the present study, EBV antibody titers are not included in this report. Results of analyses restricted to definite cases are materially identical to those including all cases and also are not shown.

Analyses were conducted using SAS software, version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC).

RESULTS

The main characteristics of the cases and controls are shown in the Table. Multiple sclerosis cases were, on average, 28.5 years old (age range, 18-48 years) at symptom onset. The initial disease course was relapsing-remitting in 73%, primary progressive in 7%, and uncertain in the remaining 20%. The average time between collection of the first and last samples before MS symptom onset was 4.4 years (range, <1-11.8 years) and between the first sample and MS symptom onset was 5.3 years (range, <1-13 years). The average serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level among whites (mean [SD], 75.2 [28.1] nmol/L) was 29.7 nmol/L higher than that among blacks (mean [SD], 45.5 [21.2] nmol/L; P<.001), and was 8.6 nmol/L higher than that of the Hispanic/other group (mean [SD], 66.6 [25.4] nmol/L; P<.001). The mean for each group is consistent with levels in the general US population.28

Table Grahic Jump Location Table. Selected Characteristics of Multiple Sclerosis Cases and Matched Controls*

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White Race/Ethnicity

Among whites, there was a 41% decrease in MS risk for every 50-nmol/L increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (OR, 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-0.97; P = .04), and there was no significant difference by sex (men: OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.33-1.10; women: OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.22-1.29; P = .90 for interaction). In analysis by quintiles, MS risk was highest among individuals in the bottom quintile and lowest among those in the top quintile of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (OR for top vs bottom quintile, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.19-0.75; P = .006). Risks in quintiles 2 through 4 were intermediate, and the overall trend across quintiles was significant (Figure). Results based on the a priori–defined categories of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were similar: using individuals with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of less than 75 nmol/L as the reference (69 cases and 114 controls) there was a nonsignificant reduction in risk among those with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of 75 to less than 100 nmol/L (62 cases and 124 controls; OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.54-1.29; P = .41) and a significant 51% reduction among those with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of 100 nmol/L or higher (17 cases and 58 controls; OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27-0.91; P = .02).

Figure. Odds Ratios of MS by Quantile of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Among Whites and Blacks

Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals.

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Adolescence appears to be a crucial exposure period for MS.5 Therefore, we further examined whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations before age 20 years predict MS risk. One of 39 cases and 16 of 76 controls (2 of the 78 matched controls were 20 years old at time of blood collection and were excluded) had 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of 100 nmol/L or higher, resulting in an OR of 0.09 (95% CI, 0.01-0.75; P = .03) compared with levels less than 100 nmol/L.

We also were concerned that our results could reflect an effect of MS on 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels rather than an effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels on MS risk. Multiple sclerosis could affect 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels either by some as yet unknown effect on vitamin D metabolism or, more likely, by changes in behavior—because heat commonly exacerbates MS symptoms, individuals with MS tend to avoid sun exposure and, thus, may have lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels than healthy individuals.29 If heat intolerance and sun avoidance preceded the neurological symptoms recognized as the first onset of MS, higher serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D would spuriously appear to be protective. To address this possibility, we examined the temporal relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and the date of onset of MS symptoms among white cases. Average 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels among individuals who developed MS were stable during the years preceding symptom onset (P = .42 for trend) but significantly decreased after onset of symptoms (P = .002). Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were 71.8 nmol/L more than 6 years before symptom onset (51 cases), 71.6 nmol/L between 4 and 6 years (51 cases), 73.5 nmol/L between 2 and 4 years (87 cases), 70.3 nmol/L between 1 and 2 years (136 cases), and 63.3 nmol/L after symptom onset (128 cases). These results argue against the possibility that the low preclinical 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels among individuals with MS are a consequence rather than a cause of the disease, although this possibility cannot be completely excluded.

Black and Hispanic Race/Ethnicity

Among blacks, the overall association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and MS risk was not significant (OR for 50-nmol/L increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.24-1.78; P = .41), and there was no significant interaction by sex (P = .70). The OR for MS did not appreciably change by 25-hydroxyvitamin D tertile (Figure). Because there were no black cases or controls with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of 100 nmol/L or higher and all but 1 case and 5 controls had levels less than 75 nmol/L, we could not assess whether high levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in blacks are associated with reduced MS risk.

Among Hispanics and those of other race/ethnicity, the OR associated with a 50-nmol/L increase of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.28-3.33; P = .96). Because this group is small, we did not conduct a quantile analysis; in categorical analyses, the OR among individuals with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of 100 nmol/L or more (3 cases and 8 controls) compared with individuals with levels of less than 75 nmol/L (18 cases and 39 controls) was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.13-2.93; P = .54).

COMMENT

In this large prospective study, we found that the risk of MS decreased with increasing serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Although this association was not seen among blacks, their smaller sample size and substantially lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may have reduced the power to detect an association in this group.

Our results converge with a growing body of evidence supporting a protective role for vitamin D in MS development. Vitamin D is a potent immunomodulator,10 and several studies have shown that administration of the biologically active hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D prevents EAE onset and progression in mice.30– 31 The exact mechanisms of this protection are unknown, but evidence suggests an indirect effect, possibly mediated by regulatory T cells.10,32 Of interest, regulatory T cells have been shown to be suppressed in individuals with MS.33 Physiological blood levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, however, are tightly regulated and are not measurably affected by exposure to sunlight or dietary vitamin D.34

In contrast, circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are sensitive to both factors. Therefore, an important question is whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D has a role in regulating immune responses. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were recently shown to control the Toll-like receptor–mediated generation of the microbicide cathelicidin by human monocytes and macrophages in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge, suggesting that nutritional vitamin D status could be key in innate immune response.35 An inhibitory effect of levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in autoimmune reactions is consistent with the accelerated onset of EAE31 and experimental type 1 diabetes in vitamin D–deficient mice.36 This effect could be mediated by local synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D from 25-hydroxyvitamin D by activated macrophages expressing 1-α-hydroxylase. If sufficient 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is produced, it may exert paracrine effects on surrounding T lymphocytes, thereby regulating the tissue-specific immune responses.10 Some support for this hypothesis comes from recent experiments showing that mice fed diets high in vitamin D had significantly fewer clinical and pathological signs of EAE than mice fed a vitamin D–deficient diet.37 Central nervous system levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, but not blood levels, were higher in supplemented mice than in vitamin D–deficient mice and correlated inversely with disease severity.

Although the results of our study support a direct role of vitamin D in MS prevention, other potential explanations should be considered. Although unlikely, a genetic predisposition to both MS and circulating low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels could appear as a protective effect of vitamin D on MS in our study. Additionally, we cannot exclude the possibility that some other effect of exposure to UV light, rather than vitamin D production, contributes to protection. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D largely reflect differences in exposure to UV radiation from sunlight. Whole-body UV light exposure has been shown to suppress EAE in mice38; it also enhances regulatory T-cell function and increases production of the immunosuppressive cytokines interleukin 4 and interleukin 10.39 The relative importance of direct vs vitamin D–dependent effects of UV light at the level of exposure typical of human populations is uncertain,40 but our previous finding of a lower MS risk among women taking vitamin D supplements15 supports a specific role for vitamin D.

In most migration studies, the change in MS risk among migrants is stronger when migration occurs in childhood and tends to decrease with increasing age at migration.5 These results suggest that vitamin D levels earlier in life may be critical in conferring protection for MS and our finding of a strong protective effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of 100 nmol/L or higher before age 20 years supports this view. Vitamin D supplementation in infancy seems to exert a strong protective effect against the autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes,41 and vitamin D levels in early childhood could also have an impact on the risk of MS. Although there are no data on vitamin D levels earlier in life and risk of MS, the strong inverse association between MS risk and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels at ages 16 to 19 years suggests that levels in late adolescence are likely to be important.

A key question is whether it may be possible to reduce the incidence of MS in populations at high risk by increasing circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Almost half of white and two thirds of black adults in the United States have 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels below 70 nmol/L.28 Although levels above 25 nmol/L have traditionally been considered normal and almost everyone in this study had measurements above this level, much higher levels may be required for bone mineralization and prevention of fractures. According to a recent review, the best serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are between 90 and 100 nmol/L.42 Adolescents have somewhat higher levels than adults, but few have levels higher than that associated with a reduced risk of MS in our study.43 If the association reported here reflects a true protective effect of vitamin D, increasing the vitamin D levels of adolescents and young adults could result in an important reduction in MS incidence. Such an increase could be achieved by using vitamin D supplements.44– 45 Although the current Institute of Medicine adequate intake of vitamin D is 200 U/d for adults younger than 50 years,46 and the highest dose that is considered safe is 2000 U/d,46 adverse effects have been reported only at intakes several-fold higher.45

A broad recommendation for a several-fold increase in vitamin D intake among adolescents and young adults requires stronger evidence than that provided by observational studies alone. First-degree relatives of individuals with MS are at a higher risk of developing MS,47 and a prevention trial among this population would be possible and timely. Meanwhile, use of vitamin D supplements for MS prevention should not be undertaken until efficacy is proven.

 

AUTHOR INFORMATION

 

Corresponding Author: Alberto Ascherio, MD, DrPH, Harvard School of Public Health, 655 Huntington Ave, Third Floor, Boston, MA 02115 (aascheri@hsph.harvard.edu).

Author Contributions: Dr Ascherio had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Study concept and design: Levin, Ascherio.

Acquisition of data: Munger, Levin, Howard, Ascherio.

Analysis and interpretation of data: Munger, Levin, Hollis, Ascherio.

Drafting of the manuscript: Munger, Hollis, Ascherio.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Munger, Levin, Hollis, Howard, Ascherio.

Statistical analysis: Munger, Ascherio.

Obtained funding: Munger, Levin, Ascherio.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Munger, Levin, Howard, Ascherio.

Study supervision: Howard, Ascherio.

Financial Disclosures: Dr Hollis is a consultant for Diasorin. No other disclosures were reported.

Funding/Support: This work was supported by grants NS46635 and NS042194 from the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke and by a pilot grant from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society.

Role of the Sponsors: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.

Disclaimer: The views expressed are those of the authors and should not be construed to represent the positions of the Department of the Army, the Department of the Navy, or the Department of Defense.

Acknowledgment: We thank Mark Rubertone, MD, MPH, Army Medical Surveillance Activity, US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Washington, DC, and Remington Nevin, MD, MPH, US Army Medical Corps, Center for Biosurveillance, Army Medical Surveillance Activity, Washington, DC, for control and sample identification and retrieval; Charles Peck, Jr, MD, and David Armitage, MD, JD, US Army Physical Disability Agency, Washington, DC, for MS case identification in the US Army; Walter Willett, MD, MPH, DrPH, and Meir Stampfer, MD, DrPH, Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, and Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass, for their valuable input, and Leslie Unger and Eilis O’Reilly, MSc, Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Mass, for technical assistance.

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High Doses of Vitamin D Cut MS Relapses

High Doses of Vitamin D Cut MS Relapses

Study Shows Vitamin D May Help Reduce Relapse Rate of Multiple Sclerosis
By

WebMD Health News

Reviewed by Louise Chang, MD
d_improves_ms

April 28, 2009 (Seattle) — High doses of vitamin D dramatically cut the relapse rate in people with multiple sclerosis, a study shows.

Sixteen percent of 25 people with multiple sclerosis (MS) given an average of 14,000 international units (IU) of vitamin D a day for a year suffered relapses, says Jodie Burton, MD, a neurologist at the University of Toronto. In contrast, close to 40% of 24 MS patients who took an average of 1,000 IU a day — the amount recommended by many MS specialists — relapsed, she says.

Also, people taking high-dose vitamin D suffered 41% fewer relapses than the year before the study began, compared with 17% of those taking typical doses.

People taking high doses of vitamin D did not suffer any significant side effects, Burton tells WebMD.

The findings were presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Neurology.

In contrast to many vitamins, no recommended dietary allowance (RDA) has been established for vitamin D. Instead, the Institute of Medicine has set a so-called adequate intake level; the recommendations are 200 IU daily for people under 50, 400 IU daily for people 50 to 70, and 600 IU for those over 70.

John Hooge, MD, an MS specialist at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver who was not involved with the research, says he recommends MS patients take at least 1,000 IU and “probably 2,000 IU” day.

“This is an impressive study that shows that even higher doses are probably safe and even more effective. Maybe next year, I’ll be recommending higher doses,” he tells WebMD.

Vitamin D vs. Relapsing MS

Most of the people in the study had the relapsing form of MS, characterized by repeated relapses with periods of recovery in between. They suffered from the disease for an average of eight years.

“They had very mild disease, with an average score of 1.25 on the Extended Disability Status Scale, where zero corresponds to normal and 10 to death,” Burton says. Participants suffered one relapse every other year, an average.

People in the high-dose group were given escalating doses of vitamin D in the form of a concentrate that could be added to juice for six months, to a maximum of 40,000 IU daily. Then doses were gradually lowered over the next six months, averaging out to 14,000 IU daily for the year.

The rest of the participants were allowed to take as much vitamin D as they and their doctors thought was warranted, but it averaged out to only 1,000 IU daily.

Everyone also took 1,200 milligrams of calcium a day. Vitamin D is essential for promoting calcium absorption in the gut and together with calcium, helps promote bone health.

1|2

Vitamin D vs. Relapsing MS continued…

Vitamin D appears to suppress the autoimmune responses thought to cause MS, Burton says. In MS, haywire T lymphocytes — the cellular “generals” of the immune system — order attacks on the myelin sheaths that surround and protect the brain cells.

In people given high-dose vitamin D in the study, T cell activity dropped significantly. That didn’t happen in people who took lower doses.

The researchers also measured the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], also known as calcidiol, in the blood. The Institute of Medicine says that is the best indicator of a person’s vitamin D status.

There’s no ideal level, although concentrations of less than 50 nanomoles per liter of blood are considered inadequate for good health. In the study, it appeared MS patients did best if levels reached 100 nanomoles per liter, Burton says.

People with MS should talk to their doctors about whether they might benefit from vitamin D supplements, she says.

“Too much vitamin D can be harmful for people with certain medical conditions such as kidney disease,” Burton says. “Also doctors can monitor your blood levels of 25(OH)D.”

http://www.webmd.com/multiple-sclerosis/news/20090428/high-doses-vitamin-d-cut-ms-relapses

—-

Preserve seu cérebro com nutrientes

Preserve seu cérebro com nutrientes   No Brasil, talvez ninguém entenda mais desse elo entre nutrição e cérebro do que o professor Cícero Galli Coimbra, neurologista da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). 155336_345790338850350_1260490623_n

Em vez de pratos e talheres, tubos de ensaio e microscópios. O apetite fica aguçado, mas por experiências e novas observações. E a cozinha cede espaço ao laboratório, onde cabeças investigam substâncias encontradas nos alimentos capazes de beneficiar nossa massa cinzenta. Como entrada, nesse menu de novidades, é bom lembrar que, nos anos 1990, os cientistas descobriram que, diferentemente do que se imaginava, os neurônios se reproduzem ao longo da vida toda. O nascimento de células nervosas novinhas em folha é chamado de neurogênese. E deguste esta informação, caro leitor as refeições podem estimular esse fenômeno, assegurando funções nobres, como a nossa capacidade de memorizar e raciocinar.  

No Brasil, talvez ninguém entenda mais desse elo entre nutrição e cérebro do que o professor Cícero Galli Coimbra, neurologista da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). Uma dieta rica em colina, nutriente que aparece sobretudo na gema do ovo, contribui para a neurogênese, exemplifica o especialista. Nosso organismo, diga-se, depende totalmente dos alimentos para obter a substância, já que não consegue sintetizá-la. E, sem ela, as lembranças não se fixam direito. Se não ingerimos boas fontes de colina, não há produção de um neurotransmissor chamado acetilcolina, envolvido na formação da memória, completa a nutricionista Luciana Ayer, co-autora do livro Nutrição Cerebral (Editora Objetiva).   Outra substância pede a atenção dos que querem conservar a mente: a glutamina. Ela é fundamental para compor o DNA, isto é, o material genético de novas células na massa cinzenta. O organismo até consegue fabricar esse aminoácido. Mas não basta. Para mantê-lo em níveis ideais, precisamos de alimentos protéicos. Aí a melhor fornecedora é a clara de novo, o ovo! ovos

E, assim como quem deixa para saborear a melhor parte da refeição por último, falta apontar o mais aplaudido dos ingredientes para preservar a atividade cerebral: o ômega-3. Esse ácido graxo não só favorece o nascimento de neurônios como protege os já existentes. Ele se incorpora às membranas das células nervosas que formam os circuitos responsáveis por funções como a memória, explica o neurologista Greg Cole, diretor do Centro de Estudos sobre Mal de Alzheimer da Universidade da Califórnia, nos Estados Unidos. http://saude.abril.com.br/edicoes/0295/nutricao/conteudo_269611.shtml Use os alimentos em benefício de seu cérebro e garanta suas saúde, memória e vitalidade.por Diogo Sponchiato | design Eder Redder | fotos Dercílio  

Em vez de pratos e talheres, tubos de ensaio e microscópios. O apetite fica aguçado, mas por experiências e novas observações. E a cozinha cede espaço ao laboratório, onde cabeças investigam substâncias encontradas nos alimentos capazes de beneficiar nossa massa cinzenta. Como entrada, nesse menu de novidades, é bom lembrar que, nos anos 1990, os cientistas descobriram que, diferentemente do que se imaginava, os neurônios se reproduzem ao longo da vida toda. O nascimento de células nervosas novinhas em folha é chamado de neurogênese. E deguste esta informação, caro leitor as refeições podem estimular esse fenômeno, assegurando funções nobres, como a nossa capacidade de memorizar e raciocinar.

No Brasil, talvez ninguém entenda mais desse elo entre nutrição e cérebro do que o professor Cícero Galli Coimbra, neurologista da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). Uma dieta rica em colina, nutriente que aparece sobretudo na gema do ovo, contribui para a neurogênese, exemplifica o especialista. Nosso organismo, diga-se, depende totalmente dos alimentos para obter a substância, já que não consegue sintetizá-la. E, sem ela, as lembranças não se fixam direito. Se não ingerimos boas fontes de colina, não há produção de um neurotransmissor chamado acetilcolina, envolvido na formação da memória, completa a nutricionista Luciana Ayer, co-autora do livro Nutrição Cerebral (Editora Objetiva).

Outra substância pede a atenção dos que querem conservar a mente: a glutamina. Ela é fundamental para compor o DNA, isto é, o material genético de novas células na massa cinzenta. O organismo até consegue fabricar esse aminoácido. Mas não basta. Para mantê-lo em níveis ideais, precisamos de alimentos protéicos. Aí a melhor fornecedora é a clara de novo, o ovo! E, assim como quem deixa para saborear a melhor parte da refeição por último, falta apontar o mais aplaudido dos ingredientes para preservar a atividade cerebral: o ômega-3. Esse ácido graxo não só favorece o nascimento de neurônios como protege os já existentes. Ele se incorpora às membranas das células nervosas que formam os circuitos responsáveis por funções como a memória, explica o neurologista Greg Cole, diretor do Centro de Estudos sobre Mal de Alzheimer da Universidade da Califórnia, nos Estados Unidos.

Como tudo no nosso organismo, o sistema nervoso necessita de um equilíbrio entre proteínas, gorduras e, claro, carboidrato. O cérebro consome grande quantidade de glicose, justifica Paulo Caramelli, coordenador do Departamento de Neurologia Cognitiva da Academia Brasileira de Neurologia. Daí a importância de comer pães, massas e arroz. Eles seriam uma espécie de combustível dos pensamentos. Já as proteínas fornecem a base para a síntese dos neurotransmissores, essenciais para a comunicação entre os neurônios. F

Entre as gorduras, reina o ômega-3. Ele melhora a função cognitiva, afasta o mau humor e diminui a ansiedade, garante o médico americano Alan Logan, autor do livro The Brain Diet (A dieta do cérebro). O pesquisador Greg Cole nota que, sozinho, o ômega-3 ajuda, mas, para tirar máximo proveito, é preciso ingerir fontes de antioxidantes. Sem elas, o cérebro fica à mercê de radicais livres, que detonam seus neurônios, afirma. No caso, os alimentos indicados são os vegetais cheios de betacaroteno (cenoura e rúcula) e de flavonóides (soja e cebola). E há ainda a maçã, lotada de substâncias anti-radicais.   As frutas cítricas, ricas em vitamina C, também têm ação antioxidante, lembra a nutricionista Gláucia Pivi, do Ambulatório de Neurologia do Comportamento da Unifesp. Outra vitamina que protege o cérebro é a E, encontrada nos óleos vegetais, nos ovos e nas nozes. Ela está associada à baixa incidência do mal de Alzheimer, diz Caramelli.

 

As do complexo B são igualmente importantes para a saúde mental. A B1, presente nos grãos, nas verduras e nos cereais, garante a boa absorção da glicose de que o cérebro tanto precisa. Já a B12, que está no leite, em seus derivados e nos ovos, favorece a memória. E o ácido fólico das verduras verde-escuras e dos cereais integrais freia o declínio cognitivo que vem com a idade, afirma Logan. A letra D fecha o bloco dessas vitaminas. Embora seja obtida pra valer por meio da exposição ao sol, dá para complementar a dose com peixes e leite. Ela também atua na renovação dos neurônios, assegura Cícero Galli Coimbra.

CALCIFEROL

No time dos minerais, a nutricionista Luciana Ayer destaca o zinco e o magnésio. O primeiro que aparece nas ostras, nas nozes e na castanha-do-pará combate os radicais livres e beneficia o trabalho dos neurotransmissores. O magnésio, encontrado nas folhas e nas oleaginosas, auxilia nas transmissões nervosas e ainda protege o cérebro do efeito tóxico de aditivos químicos.   Em vez de pratos e talheres, tubos de ensaio e microscópios. O apetite fica aguçado, mas por experiências e novas observações. E a cozinha cede espaço ao laboratório, onde cabeças investigam substâncias encontradas nos alimentos capazes de beneficiar nossa massa cinzenta. Como entrada, nesse menu de novidades, é bom lembrar que, nos anos 1990, os cientistas descobriram que, diferentemente do que se imaginava, os neurônios se reproduzem ao longo da vida toda. O nascimento de células nervosas novinhas em folha é chamado de neurogênese.

 

E deguste esta informação, caro leitor as refeições podem estimular esse fenômeno, assegurando funções nobres, como a nossa capacidade de memorizar e raciocinar. No Brasil, talvez ninguém entenda mais desse elo entre nutrição e cérebro do que o professor Cícero Galli Coimbra, neurologista da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). Uma dieta rica em colina, nutriente que aparece sobretudo na gema do ovo, contribui para a neurogênese, exemplifica o especialista. Nosso organismo, diga-se, depende totalmente dos alimentos para obter a substância, já que não consegue sintetizá-la. E, sem ela, as lembranças não se fixam direito. Se não ingerimos boas fontes de colina, não há produção de um neurotransmissor chamado acetilcolina, envolvido na formação da memória, completa a nutricionista Luciana Ayer, co-autora do livro Nutrição Cerebral (Editora Objetiva).

 

Outra substância pede a atenção dos que querem conservar a mente: a glutamina. Ela é fundamental para compor o DNA, isto é, o material genético de novas células na massa cinzenta. O organismo até consegue fabricar esse aminoácido. Mas não basta. Para mantê-lo em níveis ideais, precisamos de alimentos protéicos. Aí a melhor fornecedora é a clara de novo, o ovo! E, assim como quem deixa para saborear a melhor parte da refeição por último, falta apontar o mais aplaudido dos ingredientes para preservar a atividade cerebral: o ômega-3. Esse ácido graxo não só favorece o nascimento de neurônios como protege os já existentes. Ele se incorpora às membranas das células nervosas que formam os circuitos responsáveis por funções como a memória, explica o neurologista Greg Cole, diretor do Centro de Estudos sobre Mal de Alzheimer da Universidade da Califórnia, nos Estados Unidos.

 

Como tudo no nosso organismo, o sistema nervoso necessita de um equilíbrio entre proteínas, gorduras e, claro, carboidrato. O cérebro consome grande quantidade de glicose, justifica Paulo Caramelli, coordenador do Departamento de Neurologia Cognitiva da Academia Brasileira de Neurologia.

 

Daí a importância de comer pães, massas e arroz. Eles seriam uma espécie de combustível dos pensamentos. Já as proteínas fornecem a base para a síntese dos neurotransmissores, essenciais para a comunicação entre os neurônios. Entre as gorduras, reina o ômega-3. Ele melhora a função cognitiva, afasta o mau humor e diminui a ansiedade, garante o médico americano Alan Logan, autor do livro The Brain Diet (A dieta do cérebro). O pesquisador Greg Cole nota que, sozinho, o ômega-3 ajuda, mas, para tirar máximo proveito, é preciso ingerir fontes de antioxidantes. Sem elas, o cérebro fica à mercê de radicais livres, que detonam seus neurônios, afirma. No caso, os alimentos indicados são os vegetais cheios de betacaroteno (cenoura e rúcula) e de flavonóides (soja e cebola). E há ainda a maçã, lotada de substâncias anti-radicais. As frutas cítricas, ricas em vitamina C, também têm ação antioxidante, lembra a nutricionista Gláucia Pivi, do Ambulatório de Neurologia do Comportamento da Unifesp.

 

Outra vitamina que protege o cérebro é a E, encontrada nos óleos vegetais, nos ovos e nas nozes. Ela está associada à baixa incidência do mal de Alzheimer, diz Caramelli. As do complexo B são igualmente importantes para a saúde mental. A B1, presente nos grãos, nas verduras e nos cereais, garante a boa absorção da glicose de que o cérebro tanto precisa. Já a B12, que está no leite, em seus derivados e nos ovos, favorece a memória. E o ácido fólico das verduras verde-escuras e dos cereais integrais freia o declínio cognitivo que vem com a idade, afirma Logan. A letra D fecha o bloco dessas vitaminas. Embora seja obtida pra valer por meio da exposição ao sol, dá para complementar a dose com peixes e leite. Ela também atua na renovação dos neurônios, assegura Cícero Galli Coimbra.

 

No time dos minerais, a nutricionista Luciana Ayer destaca o zinco e o magnésio. O primeiro que aparece nas ostras, nas nozes e na castanha-do-pará combate os radicais livres e beneficia o trabalho dos neurotransmissores. O magnésio, encontrado nas folhas e nas oleaginosas, auxilia nas transmissões nervosas e ainda protege o cérebro do efeito tóxico de aditivos químicos.   A contrapartida é a seguinte: assim como alguns nutrientes são aliados do cérebro, outros representariam uma ameaça, tendo sua parcela de culpa na degradação das células nervosas. Ainda na década de 1990, foram identificados compostos químicos formados durante o cozimento das carnes branca e vermelha as aminas heterocíclicas. Os portadores de males como o Parkinson e o Alzheimer apresentavam níveis bem mais elevados dessa substância no organismo, conta o neurologista Cícero Galli Coimbra.

 

As aminas se unem ao cromossomo do neurônio e desligam alguns genes fundamentais para a célula, que se degenera. Isso, aos poucos, afeta a capacidade de pensar e de recordar as coisas mais simples.   Quanto maior o tempo em que a carne fica exposta às altas temperaturas, maior a quantidade das nefastas aminas. Naquele churrasco bem passado, os teores chegam às alturas. Não à toa, Coimbra cita Buenos Aires: a capital argentina, que ama uma parrilla, apresenta um dos maiores índices de portadores de Parkinson do planeta.

 

É claro que ninguém vai sentir os efeitos nocivos logo depois de ir a uma churrascaria. Eles são cumulativos, ressalva o professor. A quantidade de carne consumida ao longo da vida pode determinar o aparecimento de doenças neurodegenerativas no futuro. O médico, por sinal, é radical: sugere aboli-las do dia-a-dia e ele próprio segue à risca sua recomendação, baseada em estudos científicos. Dos animais, para Coimbra, só o peixe está liberado, e, melhor ainda, se for cozido ao vapor, ensopado ou mesmo cru. salmon

Alguns de seus colegas não condenam a carne de vez, até porque é grande fornecedora de proteínas e vitaminas. A sugestão é moderar o consumo da vermelha, diz Paulo Caramelli. Para Rubem Guedes, professor de neurofisiologia da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, comer bife grelhado no dia-a-dia, mas sem exagero, não representa risco. Açúcar também pede parcimônia. Em excesso, ele leva a pequenas inflamações no cérebro que danificam os neurônios, conta Alan Logan. Montar um cardápio que tire um pouco do espaço dos doces e, em compensação, privilegie os ingredientes que alimentam a cabeça é a melhor idéia especialmente para quem pretende ainda ter muitas delas e por muitos anos.

 

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