Semana Mundial de Aleitamento Materno

Semana Mundial de Aleitamento Materno

foto de http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki

 

1.ago.2012 Hoje às 10h04 – Atualizada hoje às 10h09

Semana Mundial de Aleitamento Materno é marcada por vários eventos

Jornal do Brasil

Publicidade

Criada em 1992 pela Aliança Mundial de Ação pró-Amamentação (WABA), a Semana Mundial de Aleitamento Materno (SMAM) é celebrada anualmente de 1º a 7 de agosto, em mais de 120 países. Em comemoração à data haverá, durante toda a semana, eventos nos bancos de leite da Rede Brasileira de Bancos de Leite Humano (rBLH) e nos do Programa Iberoamericano de Bancos de Leite Humano (IberBLH), com diversas atividades em favor da política mundial de aleitamento materno.

A cada ano, a WABA define o tema a ser trabalhado na Semana, lançando materiais que são traduzidos em 14 idiomas. Em 2012, com o tema Amamentar hoje é pensar no futuro, a Semana faz alusão aos dez anos da Estratégia Global para a Alimentação de Lactentes e Crianças de Primeira Infância da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) e do Fundo das Nações Unidas para a Infância (Unicef). A cerimônia oficial para o lançamento da campanha da Semana será promovida pela OMS nesta quarta-feira (1), no Hospital dos Servidores do Estado do Rio de Janeiro.

No Instituto Nacional de Saúde da Mulher, da Criança e do Adolescente Fernandes Figueira (IFF/Fiocruz) ocorrerá, no dia 6 de agosto, uma oficina de sensibilização de aleitamento materno para o Hospital Amigo da Criança, destinada a todos os profissionais do Instituto. As atividades continuarão no dia 9 de agosto, a partir das 11h, com  palestras abertas à comunidade do coordenador da Rede Brasileira de Bancos de Leite Humano, João Aprígio; do coordenador do Banco de Leite Humano do IFF, Franz Novak; e da coordenadora de pós-graduação em aconselhamento familiar e educacional da faculdade SPEI (Curitiba-PR), Meibel Mello Guedes. O IFF está localizado na Avenida Rui Barbosa, 716, Flamengo.

Sobre o aleitamento materno exclusivo

O leite materno é reconhecido como o melhor alimento para as crianças nos primeiros anos de vida, representando uma estratégia mundial para a redução da morbidade e mortalidade infantil, especialmente a neonatal.  É importante ressaltar que não existe leite fraco e que, até os seis meses de vida, o bebê só precisa do leite materno: não é necessário dar sucos, papinhas e nem mesmo água ou chá.

 Algumas mães produzem um grande volume de leite, que vai além da necessidade do seu bebê. Nesses casos, é possível doar o excedente de leite retirado após as mamadas. Ele vai ajudar na recuperação dos recém-nascidos prematuros e de alto risco.

Confira o passo a passo dessa doação:

 1. Escolhendo e esterilizando os frascos

 Os frascos utilizados devem ser de vidro, com tampa plástica. Para esterilizá-los, remova a etiqueta e papelão e lave-os com água e sabão. Em seguida, coloque o vidro e a tampa em uma panela coberta com água e deixe ferver por 20 minutos. Escorra toda a água da panela. Quando o frasco estiver seco, tampe-o e coloque uma etiqueta na qual você deve escrever o seu nome e data da coleta.

 2. Recomendações para a ordenha

 Para fazer a ordenha (tirar o leite), prenda os cabelos ou use uma touca. Lembre-se sempre de lavar as mãos com água e sabão e de evitar conversas (ou, então, use uma máscara). Não fume.

 Se você preferir usar uma bomba tira-leite, deverá fervê-la por 20 minutos, usando a mesma técnica da esterilização dos frascos.

 3. Como fazer a ordenha

Faça massagens circulares nas mamas com a ponta de dois ou três dedos, começando pela aréola, e movimentos de apertar e soltar. O leite começará a sair. Posicione os dedos no limite da aréola, puxe os dedos contra você e faça os movimentos de apertar e soltar para o leite sair. Para limpar as mamas utilize as primeiras gotas de leite e, depois disso, recolha o leite diretamente no frasco esterilizado.

 4. Como guardar o leite retirado

 Assim que você terminar de retirar o leite, escreva seu nome e data da primeira coleta na etiqueta, leve imediatamente ao freezer ou ao congelador. Evite deixar o vidro que contém o leite encostado em outros alimentos.

 Serviço

As mulheres que desejam doar leite devem ligar para 08000-268877 e informar os dados solicitados para o preenchimento do cadastro. O Banco de Leite entrará em contato na véspera da visita domiciliar. As mulheres que tenham dúvidas ou dificuldades em amamentar também podem entrar em contato pelo mesmo telefone, ou procurar um Banco de Leite em sua região, no site da rBLH, através do link ‘Encontre o BLH mais próximo de você

Tags: criança, leite, mãe, programação, SAÚDE

http://www.jb.com.br/ciencia-e-tecnologia/noticias/2012/08/01/semana-mundial-de-aleitamento-materno-e-marcada-por-varios-eventos/

IBGE: população brasileira envelhece em ritmo acelerado

 

IBGE: população brasileira envelhece em ritmo acelerado

 

IBGE

 

27 de novembro de2008

 

 

 Comunicação Social

 

 


Projeção da População do Brasil

IBGE: população brasileira envelhece em ritmo acelerado

 

Desde os anos 1960 que a taxa de crescimento da população brasileira vem experimentando paulatinos declínios, intensificando-se juntamente com as quedas mais pronunciadas da fecundidade1. No período 1950-1960, a taxa de crescimento da população recuou de 3,04% ao ano para 1,05% em 2008. Mas, em 2050, a taxa de crescimento cairá para –0,291%, que representa uma população de 215,3 milhões de habitantes. Segundo as projeções, o país apresentará um potencial de crescimento populacional até 2039, quando se espera que a população atinja o chamado “crescimento zero”. A partir desse ano serão registradas taxas de crescimento negativas, que correspondem a queda no número da população. Vale ressaltar que se o ritmo de crescimento populacional se mantivesse no mesmo nível observado na década de 1950 (aproximadamente 3% ao ano), a população brasileira chegaria, em 2008, a 295 milhões de pessoas e não nos 189,6 milhões divulgados pelo IBGE.

 

Essas informações podem ser encontradas no estudo “Uma abordagem demográfica para estimar o padrão histórico e os níveis de subenumeração de pessoas nos censos demográficos e contagens da população”, que traz ainda a projeção da população do Brasil, por sexo e idade para o período 1980 – 2050. A Revisão 2008 incorpora a revisão da trajetória recente e futura da fecundidade, com base nas informações provenientes da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD) de 2002 a 2006, cujo nível limite se estabiliza em 1,5 filho por mulher (hipótese recomendada). O IBGE divulga também a metodologia das estimativas anuais e mensais da população do Brasil e das Unidades da Federação: 1980 – 2030 e a metodologia das estimativas das populações municipais.

 

 

 

 

 

Taxa de fecundidade total cai, mas no grupo de jovens de 15 a 19 anos cresce

 

As taxas de natalidade2 iniciaram sua trajetória de declínio em meados da década de 1960, com a introdução e a paulatina difusão dos métodos anticonceptivos orais no Brasil. Com isso, no decênio 1960 – 1970 já se observa uma discreta diminuição das taxas de crescimento populacional (2,89%), fenômeno que se confirma ao longo dos dez anos seguintes, quando se constata uma taxa de crescimento de 2,48%.

 

A fecundidade no Brasil foi diminuindo ao longo dos anos, basicamente como conseqüência das transformações ocorridas na sociedade brasileira, de modo geral, e na própria família, de maneira mais particular. Com isso, a fecundidade, em 1991, já se posicionava em 2,89 filhos por mulher e, em 2000, em 2,39 filhos por mulher. As PNADs 2006 e 2007 já apresentam estimativas que colocam a fecundidade feminina no Brasil abaixo do nível de reposição das Gerações (1,99 e 1,95 filho por mulher, respectivamente). Ao utilizar este conjunto de estimativas para projetar o nível da fecundidade, a taxa estimada e correspondente ao ano de 2008 é de 1,86 filho por mulher.

 

Foi com base no conjunto de estimativas da fecundidade no Brasil que foi possível estabelecer a provável trajetória futura desta variável demográfica. Com os devidos ajustes inerentes ao processo de modelagem, a fecundidade limite brasileira seria de 1,50 filho por mulher, valor que será alcançado entre 2027 e 2028. A fecundidade por idade da mulher, por hipótese, deve seguir mantendo um comportamento jovem, com taxas máximas no grupo 20 a 24 anos de idade.

 

A taxa de fecundidade das mulheres jovens apresenta incrementos até 2005 (em 1980, 7,42% – de cada 100 mulheres de 15 a 19 anos, 7,42 já haviam tido pelo menos 1 filho – e 9,15%, em 2005). A partir de 2005, a taxa experimenta suaves declínios até atingir os 7,21% em 2050. Não obstante, a participação relativa da fecundidade das mulheres de 15 a 19 anos de idade na fecundidade total eleva-se até 2020. Em 2000, da fecundidade total experimentada ao longo do período fértil, 18,81% correspondiam às mulheres de 15 a 19 anos. Em 2020, este percentual alcança os 24,01%, mantendo-se neste patamar até 2050, em decorrência dos baixos níveis atingidos pela fecundidade.

 

 

Em 2050, o Brasil terá 7 milhões de mulheres a mais do que os homens

 

Como conseqüência da sobremortalidade masculina, as razões de sexo3 vêm diminuindo paulatinamente no Brasil. Em 1980, para cada grupo de 100 mulheres, havia 98,7 homens. Em 2000, já se observam 97 homens para cada 100 mulheres e, em 2050, espera-se que a razão de sexo da população fique por volta de 94%. Dessa forma, verificam-se elevações no excedente feminino na população total que, em 2000, era de 2,5 milhões de mulheres e, em 2050, poderá atingir quase 7 milhões.

 

As taxas de crescimento correspondentes às crianças de 0 a 14 anos já mostram que este segmento vem diminuindo em valor absoluto desde o período 1990 – 2000. Em contrapartida, as correspondentes ao contingente de 65 anos ou mais, embora oscilem, são as mais elevadas, podendo superar os 4% ao ano entre 2025 e 2030. Em 2008, enquanto as crianças de 0 a 14 anos correspondem a 26,47% da população total, o contingente com 65 anos ou mais representa 6,53%. Em 2050, a situação muda e o primeiro grupo representará 13,15%, ao passo que a população idosa ultrapassará os 22,71% da população total.

 

Ainda como reflexo do envelhecimento da população brasileira, a razão de dependência total, que mede o peso da população em idades potencialmente inativas sobre a população em idades potencialmente ativas, diminuirá até aproximadamente 2022, em decorrência das reduções na razão de dependência das crianças. A partir desse ano, a razão dependência retoma uma trajetória de elevação em virtude do aumento da participação absoluta e relativa dos idosos na população total. Assim, a idade mediana4 da população duplica entre 1980 e 2035, ao passar de 20,20 anos para 39,90 anos, respectivamente, podendo alcançar os 46,20 anos, em 2050.

 

 

 

O PAÍS CAMINHA VELOZMENTE RUMO A UM PERFIL DEMOGRÁFICO CADA VEZ MAIS ENVELHECIDO

 

O índice de envelhecimento aponta para mudanças na estrutura etária da população brasileira. Em 2008, para cada grupo de 100 crianças de 0 a 14 anos existem 24,7 idosos de 65 anos ou mais. Em 2050, o quadro muda e para cada 100 crianças de 0 a 14 anos existirão 172, 7 idosos.

 

Um exame das estruturas etárias projetadas mostra, também, a transformação nas relações entre pessoas que ingressam (e permanecem) nas idades ativas e aquelas que atingem as chamadas idades potencialmente inativas. Em 2000, para cada pessoa (1) com 65 anos ou mais de idade, aproximadamente 12 estavam na faixa etária chamada de potencialmente ativa (15 a 64 anos). Já em 2050, para cada pessoa (1) com 65 anos ou mais de idade, pouco menos de 3 estarão na faixa etária potencialmente ativa. No tocante às crianças e jovens, existirá cada vez mais pessoas em idade potencialmente ativa “destinadas”a suprir suas necessidades.

 

População alcança bônus demográfico favorável ao crescimento econômico

 

Os resultados apresentados permitem constatar que, nesse momento, o Brasil passa pela chamada janela demográfica, onde o número de pessoas com idades potencialmente ativas está em pleno processo de ascensão, e a razão de dependência total da população vem declinando em conseqüência da diminuição do peso das crianças de 0 a 14 anos sobre a população de 15 a 64 anos de idade.

 

Além disso, a população com idades de ingresso no mercado de trabalho (15 a 24 anos) passa pelo máximo de 34 milhões de pessoas, contingente que tende a diminuir nos próximos anos. O aproveitamento desta oportunidade (janela demográfica) proporcionaria o dinamismo e o crescimento econômico, se essas pessoas fossem preparadas em termos educacionais e de qualificação profissional para um mercado de trabalho cada vez mais competitivo, não somente em nível nacional, mas também em escala global.

 

 

Vida média do brasileiro chegará ao patamar de 81 anos em 2050

 

Os avanços da medicina e as melhorias nas condições gerais de vida da população repercutem no sentido de elevar a média de vida do brasileiro (expectativa de vida ao nascer) de 45,5 anos de idade, em 1940, para 72,7 anos, em 2008, ou seja, mais 27,2 anos de vida. Segundo a projeção do IBGE, o país continuará galgando anos na vida média de sua população, alcançando em 2050 o patamar de 81,29 anos, basicamente o mesmo nível atual da Islândia (81,80), Hong Kong, China (82,20) e Japão (82,60).

 

Em 2008, a média de vida para mulheres chega a 76,6 anos e para os homens 69,0 anos, uma diferença de 7,6 anos. Em escala mundial, a esperança de vida ao nascer foi estimada, para 2008 (período 2005-2010), em 67,2 anos e, para 2045-2050, a ONU projeta uma vida média de 75,40 anos.

 

Taxa de mortalidade infantil cai para 23,3%0, mas ainda é preocupante

 

O aumento da escolaridade feminina, a elevação do percentual de domicílios com saneamento básico adequado (esgotamento sanitário, água potável e coleta de lixo) e o acesso aos serviços de saúde contribuíram para a queda da taxa de mortalidade infantil em todo o país. Contudo, ainda há um longo percurso pela frente, uma vez que a mortalidade infantil no Brasil, estimada em 23,30 óbitos de menores de 1 ano para cada mil nascidos vivos, em 2008, é alta quando comparada com os indicadores correspondentes aos países vizinhos do cone sul para o período 2005 – 2010. No mesmo período, os países como, por exemplo, Argentina (13,40 por mil), Chile (7,20 por mil) e Uruguai (13,10 por mil) registraram taxas bem menores.Vale lembrar que, em 1970, a taxa de mortalidade infantil no Brasil estava próxima de 100 óbitos de crianças menores de 1 ano por mil nascidos vivos.

 

De acordo com os parâmetros utilizados na projeção da população do Brasil – Revisão 2008, o país poderá reduzir sua mortalidade infantil para 18,2 óbitos de menores de 1 ano para cada mil nascidos vivos até 2015, e a esperança de vida ao nascer deverá atingir os 74,8 anos. Já a probabilidade de um recém-nascido falecer antes de completar os 5 anos de idade poderá experimentar um declínio de 32,9%, posicionando-se em 21,6%0 em 2015.

 

Em relação ao cumprimento das Metas do Milênio5, que constituem uma responsabilidade comum a todos, envolvendo os governos Federal, Estadual e Municipal e o setor privado, as projeções sinalizam ainda indicadores em níveis superiores aos esperados. Dos oito objetivos gerais o de número quatro trata do compromisso assumido pelos signatários da Declaração em reduzir em dois terços, entre 1990 e 2015, a taxa de mortalidade de crianças menores de 5 anos de idade. Assim, a taxa de mortalidade infantil do País, em 1990, era de 46,9 óbitos de menores de 1 ano para cada mil nascidos vivos, e uma redução de dois terços significa atingir, em 2015, o patamar de 15,6 óbitos por mil. Por sua vez, a taxa de mortalidade de crianças menores de 5 anos posicionava-se, no início dos anos 1990, em 59,6 óbitos por mil, devendo cumprir uma trajetória de declínio nos próximos dez anos até que alcance os 19,9 óbitos por mil. Entretanto, é bastante provável que o país venha a atingir as metas contidas nos Objetivos do Desenvolvimento do Milênio, e o Censo Demográfico 2010 poderá, com seus resultados, oferecer elementos preciosos para uma melhor avaliação desta possibilidade. É conveniente, todavia, advertir que o indicador em questão reflete uma realidade da média nacional e, um cenário positivo e, por conseguinte, necessário e desejável é aquele no qual já estejam totalmente apagadas as marcantes desigualdades sociorregionais que ainda persistem no Brasil. De qualquer forma, vale registrar que os valores das respectivas taxas, implícitas na atual projeção da mortalidade para 2015: 18,2%o (para os menores de 1 ano de idade) e 21,6%o (para os menores de 5 anos de idade) estão bem próximos, mas ainda superiores às metas a serem cumpridas.

 

Mortes prematuras de jovens por violência reflete na esperança de vida

 

O Brasil por algum tempo experimentou declínios nas taxas de mortalidade em todas as idades, mas, a partir de meados dos anos 1980, as mortes associadas às causas externas (acidentes de qualquer natureza e violência) passaram a desempenhar um papel de destaque, e infelizmente de forma desfavorável, sobre a estrutura por idade das taxas de mortalidade, particularmente dos adultos jovens do sexo masculino. A esperança de vida no Brasil continuou elevando-se, mas poderia, na atualidade, ser superior em 2 ou 3 anos à estimada, se não fosse o efeito das mortes prematuras de jovens por violência. Basta constatar que, em 2000, a incidência da mortalidade masculina no grupo etário 20 a 24 anos era quase 4 vezes superior à da feminina e, este indicador, ao que tudo indica estaria elevando-se com o passar dos anos.

 

De 2008 para 2050, Brasil passa da 5ª para a 8ª posição no ranking dos países mais populosos

 

Em 2008, o Brasil ocupa a 5ª posição entre os países mais populosos, mas de acordo com as projeções da ONU, o país passará para a oitava posição em 2050. Veja na tabela abaixo o ranking dos 25 países mais populosos (World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision).

Nota: A Revisão 2008, elaborada pela Divisão de População das Nações Unidas, será divulgada em 2009. Portanto, os resultados acerca do posicionamento do Brasil frente aos demais países ou áreas devem ser vistos como preliminares.

 

 

___________________________________________________________________________

1 Taxa de fecundidade total – A taxa de fecundidade total expressa o número de filhos que, em média, teria uma mulher, pertencente a uma coorte hipotética de mulheres, que durante sua vida fértil tiveram seus filhos de acordo com as taxas de fecundidade por idade do período em estudo e não estiveram expostas aos riscos de mortalidade desde o nascimento até o término do período fértil.

2 Taxa bruta de natalidade – Representa a freqüência com que ocorrem os nascimentos em uma determinada população. É o quociente entre os nascidos vivos ocorridos em um determinado ano e a população ao meio do ano, vezes 1000.

3 Razão de sexoexpressa o número de pessoas do sexo masculino para cada grupo de 100 pessoas do sexo feminino. É obtida através do quociente entre as populações masculina e feminina por grupos de idade.

4 A idade mediana é aquela que separa a distribuição etária em dois blocos de 50% cada um.

5 A adoção da Declaração do Milênio em 2000 por todos os 189 Estados-membros da Assembléia Geral das Nações Unidas marcou um momento decisivo da cooperação global no século XXI. A Declaração estabelece, no âmbito de uma única estrutura, os desafios centrais enfrentados pela humanidade no limiar do novo milênio, esboça a resposta a esses desafios e estabelece medidas concretas para medir o desempenho mediante uma série de compromissos, objetivos e metas interrelacionados sobre desenvolvimento, governabilidade, paz, segurança e direitos humanos (em http://www.pnud.org.br/odm/papel_pnud/ ).

 

 http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/presidencia/noticias/noticia_visualiza.php?id_noticia=1272

 

Infanticídio feminino e mortalidade materna, assassinato em massa de mulheres e deficientes, um genocídio por responsabilidade do governo

 

“O fenômeno do infanticídio feminino é tão antigo em muitas culturas, e foi provavelmente responsável por milhões de mortes seletivas de gênero ao longo da história. Continua, hoje, a ser uma preocupação fundamental em um número de paises do “Terceiro Mundo”, nomeadamente os dois países mais populosos do planeta, China e Índia. Em todos os casos, especificamente o infanticídio feminino reflete o baixo estatuto concedido às mulheres em muitas partes do mundo, e é sem dúvida a manifestação mais brutal e destruidora do viés anti-feminino que permeia as sociedades “patriarcais”. Ela está intimamente ligada aos fenômenos de abortos seletivos, que visa fetos do sexo feminino quase exclusivamente, e negligência a saude de crianças do sexo feminino.” 

“O infanticídio feminino é a morte intencional de bebês do sexo feminino, devido à preferência por bebês do sexo masculino e do baixo valor da pessoa associada com o nascimento de fêmeas.” (Marina Porras, “o infanticídio feminino e o Feticide”.). O FETICIDIO deve ser visto como um subconjunto do fenômeno mais amplo do infanticídio, que também tem como alvo a morte de crianças física ou mentalmente DEFICIENTES, e os machos infantis (ao lado do sexo feminino infantil ou, ocasionalmente, em um gênero seletivo base). Tal como acontece com a MORTALIDADE MATERNA. Alguns contestam a atribuição de infanticídio ou o infanticídio feminino para a categoria de “genocídio” ou, como aqui, “generocídio”.

“No entanto, o argumento apresentado no estudo de caso sobre a categoria MORTALIDADE MATERNA se aplica neste  caso como a seguinte evidencia: governos e outros atores podem ser tão culpados e responsaveis pelo assassinato em massa por negligência, falta de assistencia ‘a saude ou  incentivo tácito ao aborto, como assassinato direto de  mulheres, gestantes, fetos e crianças nascidas.”

    

Aqui no Brasil estamos a ver o governo, de Lula explicitamente desde 2005, e Dilma desde ministra da Casa Civil, com divulgaçoes na midia, vendendo a ideia fraudulenta      de que a mulher brasileira é a favor do aborto.                              

                                                                                                                                                                               

O PNDH-3 PREVE A LIBERAÇÃO DE CRIMES, fim do Estado de Direito.

https://objetodignidade.wordpress.com/2011/08/23/o-pndh-3-preve-a-liberacao-de-crimes-fim-do-estado-de-direito/

Antes do segundo turno das eleições presidenciais de 2010, o governo lula na trama internacional do aborto, publicou em 04/10/2010, no Diário Oficial da União,  seção III, página 88, o Termo de Cooperação do Governo do Brasil com a Fundação Oswaldo Cruz para despenalizar (retirar a pena legal do crime) o aborto:

ESPÉCIE: PRIMEIRO TERMO ADITIVO AO TERMO DE COOPERAÇÃO Nº. 137/2009

http://www.in.gov.br/imprensa/visualiza/index.jsp?jornal=3&pagina=88&data=04/10/2010

 

 

Além disso, o DECRETO 7.037, DE 21 DE DEZEMBRO DE 2009, do Presidente Lula E da Casa Civil durante o exercício de Dilma Rousseff atualizado pelo Decreto nº 7.177, em 12 de maio de 2010, ainda durante o 1º turno das eleições de 2010, dispõe sobre matérias da Constituição de competência privativa da União para legislar. Sendo assim, não passa de um texto político de intenções, mas que esta sendo posto em pratica por PT e Dilma. Isso é ditadura civil.

                   

 – aborto, exclusão do direito à vida do ser humano concebido, como determina a diretriz 9, objetivo estratégico III, ação programática g): “apoiar a aprovação do projeto de lei que descriminaliza o aborto.

Diante desses programas, diretrizes e objetivos estratégicos, justiça sumaria, implementações, financiamentos e desqualificação de crimes contra a vida humana por causa da idade da vitima e/ou condição de saúde e deficiencia, o ato de questionar será considerado como transgressão infratora do INCONSTITUCIONAL PNDH-3, O DECRETO que é a VIOLAÇÃO dos Direitos Humanos. A pessoa que não aceitar o PNDH-3 será punida com desaprovações, privações de benefícios, e uma justiça ágil e eficiente para viabilizar execuções sumárias.

 

Feministas brasileiras representam interesses estrangeiros, não a mulher brasileira

http://biodireitomedicina.wordpress.com/2012/04/12/feministas-brasileiras-representam-interesses-estrangeiros-nao-a-mulher-brasileira/

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Infanticídio feminino e mortalidade materna, assassinato em massa de mulheres e deficientes, um genocídio por responsabilidade do governo

 Case Study: Female Infanticide  

Focus:                                            
(1) India
(2) China

     Summary                            

The phenomenon of female infanticide is as old as many cultures, and has likely accounted for millions of gender-selective deaths throughout history. It remains a critical concern in a number of “Third World” countries today, notably the two most populous countries on earth, China and India. In all cases, specifically female infanticide reflects the low status accorded to women in most parts of the world; it is arguably the most brutal and destructive manifestation of the anti-female bias that pervades “patriarchal” societies. It is closely linked to the phenomena of sex-selective abortion, which targets female fetuses almost exclusively, and neglect of girl children.

The background

“Female infanticide is the intentional killing of baby girls due to the preference for male babies and from the low value associated with the birth of females.” (Marina Porras, “Female Infanticide and Foeticide”.) It should be seen as a subset of the broader phenomenon of infanticide, which has also targeted the physically or mentally handicapped, and infant males (alongside infant females or, occasionally, on a gender-selective basis). As with maternal mortality, some would dispute the assigning of infanticide or female infanticide to the category of “genocide” or, as here, “gendercide.” Nonetheless, the argument advanced in the maternal mortality case-study holds true in this case as well: governments and other actors can be just as guilty of mass killing by neglect or tacit encouragement, as by direct murder. R.J. Rummel buttresses this view, referring to infanticide as

another type of government killing whose victims may total millions … In many cultures, government permitted, if not encouraged, the killing of handicapped or female infants or otherwise unwanted children. In the Greece of 200 B.C., for example, the murder of female infants was so common that among 6,000 families living in Delphi no more than 1 percent had two daughters. Among 79 families, nearly as many had one child as two. Among all there were only 28 daughters to 118 sons. … But classical Greece was not unusual. In eighty-four societies spanning the Renaissance to our time, “defective” children have been killed in one-third of them. In India, for example, because of Hindu beliefs and the rigid caste system, young girls were murdered as a matter of course. When demographic statistics were first collected in the nineteenth century, it was discovered that in “some villages, no girl babies were found at all; in a total of thirty others, there were 343 boys to 54 girls. … [I]n Bombay, the number of girls alive in 1834 was 603.”

Rummel adds: “Instances of infanticide … are usually singular events; they do not happen en masse. But the accumulation of such officially sanctioned or demanded murders comprises, in effect, serial massacre. Since such practices were so pervasive in some cultures, I suspect that the death toll from infanticide must exceed that from mass sacrifice and perhaps even outright mass murder.” (Rummel, Death by Government, pp. 65-66.)

Focus (1): India

As John-Thor Dahlburg points out, “in rural India, the centuries-old practice of female infanticide can still be considered a wise course of action.” (Dahlburg, “Where killing baby girls ‘is no big sin’,” The Los Angeles Times [in The Toronto Star, February 28, 1994.]) According to census statistics, “From 972 females for every 1,000 males in 1901 … the gender imbalance has tilted to 929 females per 1,000 males. … In the nearly 300 poor hamlets of the Usilampatti area of Tamil Nadu [state], as many as 196 girls died under suspicious circumstances [in 1993] … Some were fed dry, unhulled rice that punctured their windpipes, or were made to swallow poisonous powdered fertilizer. Others were smothered with a wet towel, strangled or allowed to starve to death.” Dahlburg profiles one disturbing case from Tamil Nadu:

Lakshmi already had one daughter, so when she gave birth to a second girl, she killed her. For the three days of her second child’s short life, Lakshmi admits, she refused to nurse her. To silence the infant’s famished cries, the impoverished village woman squeezed the milky sap from an oleander shrub, mixed it with castor oil, and forced the poisonous potion down the newborn’s throat. The baby bled from the nose, then died soon afterward. Female neighbors buried her in a small hole near Lakshmi’s square thatched hut of sunbaked mud. They sympathized with Lakshmi, and in the same circumstances, some would probably have done what she did. For despite the risk of execution by hanging and about 16 months of a much-ballyhooed government scheme to assist families with daughters, in some hamlets of … Tamil Nadu, murdering girls is still sometimes believed to be a wiser course than raising them. “A daughter is always liabilities. How can I bring up a second?” Lakshmi, 28, answered firmly when asked by a visitor how she could have taken her own child’s life eight years ago. “Instead of her suffering the way I do, I thought it was better to get rid of her.” (All quotes from Dahlburg, “Where killing baby girls ‘is no big sin’.”)

A study of Tamil Nadu by the Community Service Guild of Madras similarly found that “female infanticide is rampant” in the state, though only among Hindu (rather than Moslem or Christian) families. “Of the 1,250 families covered by the study, 740 had only one girl child and 249 agreed directly that they had done away with the unwanted girl child. More than 213 of the families had more than one male child whereas half the respondents had only one daughter.” (Malavika Karlekar, “The girl child in India: does she have any rights?,” Canadian Woman Studies, March 1995.)

The bias against females in India is related to the fact that “Sons are called upon to provide the income; they are the ones who do most of the work in the fields. In this way sons are looked to as a type of insurance. With this perspective, it becomes clearer that the high value given to males decreases the value given to females.” (Marina Porras, “Female Infanticide and Foeticide”.) The problem is also intimately tied to the institution of dowry, in which the family of a prospective bride must pay enormous sums of money to the family in which the woman will live after marriage. Though formally outlawed, the institution is still pervasive. “The combination of dowry and wedding expenses usually add up to more than a million rupees ([US] $35,000). In India the average civil servant earns about 100,000 rupees ($3,500) a year. Given these figures combined with the low status of women, it seems not so illogical that the poorer Indian families would want only male children.” (Porras, “Female Infanticide and Foeticide”.) Murders of women whose families are deemed to have paid insufficient dowry have become increasingly common, and receive separate case-study treatment on this site.

India is also the heartland of sex-selective abortion. Amniocentesis was introduced in 1974 “to ascertain birth defects in a sample population,” but “was quickly appropriated by medical entrepreneurs. A spate of sex-selective abortions followed.” (Karlekar, “The girl child in India.”) Karlekar points out that “those women who undergo sex determination tests and abort on knowing that the foetus is female are actively taking a decision against equality and the right to life for girls. In many cases, of course, the women are not independent agents but merely victims of a dominant family ideology based on preference for male children.”

Dahlburg notes that “In Jaipur, capital of the western state of Rajasthan, prenatal sex determination tests result in an estimated 3,500 abortions of female fetuses annually,” according to a medical-college study. (Dahlburg, “Where killing baby girls ‘is no big sin’.”) Most strikingly, according to UNICEF, “A report from Bombay in 1984 on abortions after prenatal sex determination stated that 7,999 out of 8,000 of the aborted fetuses were females. Sex determination has become a lucrative business.” (Zeng Yi et al., “Causes and Implications of the Recent Increase in the Reported Sex Ratio at Birth in China,” Population and Development Review, 19: 2 [June 1993], p. 297.)

Deficits in nutrition and health-care also overwhelmingly target female children. Karlekar cites research

indicat[ing] a definite bias in feeding boys milk and milk products and eggs … In Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh [states], it is usual for girls and women to eat less than men and boys and to have their meal after the men and boys had finished eating. Greater mobility outside the home provides boys with the opportunity to eat sweets and fruit from saved-up pocket money or from money given to buy articles for food consumption. In case of illness, it is usually boys who have preference in health care. … More is spent on clothing for boys than for girls[,] which also affects morbidity. (Karlekar, “The girl child in India.”)

Sunita Kishor reports “another disturbing finding,” namely “that, despite the increased ability to command essential food and medical resources associated with development, female children [in India] do not improve their survival chances relative to male children with gains in development. Relatively high levels of agricultural development decrease the life chances of females while leaving males’ life chances unaffected; urbanization increases the life chances of males more than females. … Clearly, gender-based discrimination in the allocation of resources persists and even increases, even when availability of resources is not a constraint.” (Kishor, “‘May God Give Sons to All’: Gender and Child Mortality in India,” American Sociological Review, 58: 2 [April 1993], p. 262.)

Indian state governments have sometimes taken measures to diminish the slaughter of infant girls and abortions of female fetuses. “The leaders of Tamil Nadu are holding out a tempting carrot to couples in the state with one or two daughters and no sons: if one parent undergoes sterilization, the government will give the family [U.S.] \\$160 in aid per child. The money will be paid in instalments as the girl goes through school. She will also get a small gold ring and on her 20th birthday, a lump sum of $650 to serve as her dowry or defray the expenses of higher education. Four thousand families enrolled in the first year,” with 6,000 to 8,000 expected to join annually (as of 1994) (Dahlburg, “Where killing baby girls ‘is no big sin’.”) Such programs have, however, barely begun to address the scale of the catastrophe.

Focus (2): China

“A tradition of infanticide and abandonment, especially of females, existed in China before the foundation of the People’s Republic in 1949,” note Zeng et al.. (“Causes and Implications,” p. 294.) According to Ansley J. Coale and Judith Banister, “A missionary (and naturalist) observer in [China in] the late nineteenth century interviewed 40 women over age 50 who reported having borne 183 sons and 175 daughters, of whom 126 sons but only 53 daughters survived to age 10; by their account, the women had destroyed 78 of their daughters.” (Coale and Banister, “Five Decades of Missing Females in China,” Demography, 31: 3 [August 1994], p. 472.)

According to Zeng et al., “The practice was largely forsaken in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s.” (Zeng et al., “Causes and Implications,” p. 294.) Coale and Banister likewise acknowledge a “decline of excess female mortality after the establishment of the People’s Republic … assisted by the action of a strong government, which tried to modify this custom as well as other traditional practices that it viewed as harmful.” (Coale and Banister, “Five Decades,” p. 472.) But the number of “missing” women showed a sharp upward trend in the 1980s, linked by almost all scholars to the “one-child policy” introduced by the Chinese government in 1979 to control spiralling population growth. Couples are penalized by wage-cuts and reduced access to social services when children are born “outside the plan.” Johansson and Nygren found that while “sex ratios [were] generally within or fairly near the expected range of 105 to 106 boys per 100 girls for live births within the plan … they are, in contrast, clearly far above normal for children born outside the plan, even as high as 115 to 118 for 1984-87. That the phenomenon of missing girls in China in the 1980s is related to the government’s population policy is thus conclusively shown.” (Sten Johansson and Ola Nygren, “The Missing Girls of China: A New Demographic Account,” Population and Development Review, 17: 1 [March 1991], pp. 40-41.)

The Chinese government appeared to recognize the linkage by allowing families in rural areas (where anti-female bias is stronger) a second child if the first was a girl. Nonetheless, in September 1997, the World Health Organization’s Regional Committee for the Western Pacific issued a report claiming that “more than 50 million women were estimated to be ‘missing’ in China because of the institutionalized killing and neglect of girls due to Beijing’s population control program that limits parents to one child.” (See Joseph Farah, “Cover-up of China’s gender-cide”, Western Journalism Center/FreeRepublic, September 29, 1997.) Farah referred to the gendercide as “the biggest single holocaust in human history.”

According to Peter Stockland, “Years of population engineering, including virtual extermination of ‘surplus’ baby girls, has created a nightmarish imbalance in China’s male and female populations.” (Stockland, “China’s baby-slaughter overlooked,” The Calgary Sun, June 11, 1997.) In 1999, Jonathan Manthorpe reported a study by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, claiming that “the imbalance between the sexes is now so distorted that there are 111 million men in China — more than three times the population of Canada — who will not be able to find a wife.” As a result, the kidnapping and slave-trading of women has increased: “Since 1990, say official Chinese figures, 64,000 women — 8,000 a year on average — have been rescued by authorities from forced ‘marriages’. The number who have not been saved can only be guessed at. … The thirst for women is so acute that the slave trader gangs are even reaching outside China to find merchandise. There are regular reports of women being abducted in such places as northern Vietnam to feed the demand in China.” (Jonathan Manthorpe, “China battles slave trading in women: Female infanticide fuels a brisk trade in wives,” The Vancouver Sun, January 11, 1999.)

Since the first allegations of widespread female infanticide in China connected to the government’s “one-child” policy, controversy has raged over the number of deaths that can be ascribed to infanticide as opposed to other causes. Zeng et al. argued in 1993 that “underreporting of female births, an increase in prenatal sex identification by ultrasound and other diagnostic methods for the illegal purpose of gender-specific birth control, and [only] very low-level incidence of female infanticide are the causes of the increase in the reported sex ratio at birth in China.” (Zeng et al., “Causes and Implications,” p. 285.) They add: “Underreporting of female births accounts for about 43 percent to 75 percent of the difference between the reported sex ratio at birth during the second half of the 1980s and the normal value of the true sex ratio at birth” (p. 289). The authors contended that “sex-differential underreporting of births and induced abortion after prenatal sex determination together explain almost all of the increase in the reported sex ratio at birth during the late 1980s,” and thus “the omission … of victims of female infanticide cannot be a significant factor.” Moreover, “Both the social and administrative structure and the close bond among neighbors in China make it difficult to conceal a serious crime such as infanticide,” while additionally “Infanticide is not a cost-effective method of sex selection. The psychological and moral costs are so high that people are unlikely to take such a step except under extreme circumstances” (p. 295). They stress, however, that “even small numbers of cases of female infanticide, abandonment, and neglect are a serious violation of the fundamental human rights of women and children” (p. 296). (2002 update: A recent article by John Gittings of the UK Guardian cites national census results released in May 2002 that show that “more than 116 male births were recorded for every 100 female births,” but claims the cause is overwhelmingly sex-selective abortion: “Female infanticide, notorious in China’s past as a primitive method of sex selection, is now thought to be infrequent.” See Gittings, “Growing Sex Imbalance Shocks China”, The Guardian, May 13, 2002.)

In a similar vein, in April 2000, The New York Times reported that “many ‘illegal’ children are born in secret, their births never officially registered.” And “as more women move around the country to work, it is increasingly hard to monitor pregnancies … Unannnounced spot checks by the State Statistics Bureau have discovered undercounts of up to 40 percent in some villages, Chinese demographers say.” (See Elisabeth Rosenthal, “China’s Widely Flouted One-Child Policy Undercuts Its Census”, The New York Times, April 14, 2000.)

Johansson and Nygren attracted considerable notice with a somewhat different claim: “that adoptions (which often go unreported) account for a large proportion of the missing girls. … If adopted children are added to the live births … the sex ratio at birth becomes much closer to normal for most years in the 1980s. … Adding the adopted children to live births reduces the number of missing girls by about half.” (Johansson and Nygren, “The Missing Girls of China,” pp. 43, 46.) They add (p. 50): “That female infanticide does occur on some scale is evidenced by reports in the Chinese press, but the available statistical evidence does not help us to determine whether it takes place on a large or a small scale.”

Even if millions of Chinese infant girls are unregistered rather than directly murdered, however, the pattern of discrimination is one that will severely reduce their opportunities in life. “If parents do hide the birth of a baby girl, she will go unregistered and therefore will not have any legal existence. The child may have difficulty receiving medical attention, going to school, and [accessing] other state services.” (Porras, “Female Infanticide and Foeticide”.)

Likewise, if a Chinese infant girl is turned over for adoption rather than being killed, she risks being placed in one of the notorious “Dying Rooms” unveiled in a British TV documentary. Chinese state orphanages have come in for heavy criticism as a result of the degrading and unsanitary conditions that usually pervade them. In one orphanage, documentary producer Brian Woods found that “every single baby … was a girl, and as we moved on this pattern was repeated. The only boys were mentally or physically disabled. 95% of the babies we saw were able-bodied girls. We also discovered that, although they are described as orphans, very few of them actually are; the overwhelming majority do have parents, but their parents have abandoned them, simply because they were born the wrong sex.” Woods estimated that “up to a million baby girls every year” were victims of this “mass desertion,” deriving from “the complex collision of [China’s] notorious One Child Policy and its traditional preference for sons.” (See Brian Woods, “The Dying Rooms Trust”.)

The phenomenon of neglect of girl children is also dramatically evident in China. According to the World Health Organization, “In many cases, mothers are more likely to bring their male children to health centers — particularly to private physicians — and they may be treated at an earlier stage of disease than girls.” (Cited in Farah, “Cover-up of China’s gender-cide”.)

The Chinese government has taken some energetic steps to combat the practice of female infanticide and sex-selective abortion of female fetuses. It “has employed the Marriage Law and Women’s Protection Law which both prohibit female infanticide. The Women’s Protection Law also prohibits discrimination against ‘women who give birth to female babies.’ … The Maternal Health Care Law of 1994 ‘strictly prohibits’ the use of technology to identify the gender of a fetus.” However, “although the government has outlawed the use of ultrasound machines, physicians continue to use them to determine the gender of fetuses, especially in rural areas.” (Porras, “Female Infanticide and Foeticide”.)

How many die?

Gendercide Watch is aware of no overall statistics on the numbers of girls who die annually from infanticide. Calculations are further clouded by the unreliability and ambiguity of much of the data. Nonetheless, a minimum estimate would place the casualties in the the hundreds of thousands, especially when one takes into consideration that the phenomenon is most prevalent in the world’s two most populous countries. Sex-selective abortions likely account for an even higher number of “missing” girls.

Who is responsible?

As already noted, female infanticide reflects the low status accorded to women in many societies around the world. The “burden” of taking a woman into the family accounts for the high dowry rates in India which, in turn, have led to an epidemic female infanticide. Typical also is China, where

culture dictates that when a girl marries she leaves her family and becomes part of her husband’s family. For this reason Chinese peasants have for many centuries wanted a son to ensure there is someone to look after them in their old age — having a boy child is the best pension a Chinese peasant can get. Baby girls are even called “maggots in the rice” … (“The Dying Rooms Trust”)

Infanticide is a crime overwhelmingly committed by women, both in the Third and First Worlds. (This contrasts markedly with “infanticide in nonhuman primates,” which “is carried out primarily by migrant males who are unrelated to the infant or its parents and is a manifestation of reproductive competition among males.” [Glenn Hausfater, “Infanticide: Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives,” Current Anthropology, 25: 4 (1984), p. 501.] It also serves as a reminder that gendercide may be implemented by those of the same gender.) In India, according to John-Thor Dahlburg, “many births take place in isolated villages, with only female friends and the midwife present. If a child dies, the women can always blame natural causes.” (Dahlburg, “Where killing baby girls ‘is no big sin’.”) In the United States, “every year hundreds of women commit neonaticide [the killing of newborns] … Prosecutors sometimes don’t prosecute; juries rarely convict; those found guilty almost never go to jail. Barbara Kirwin, a forensic psychologist, reports that in nearly 300 cases of women charged with neonaticide in the United States and Britain, no woman spent more than a night in jail.” Much of “the leniency shown to neonaticidal mothers” reflects the fact that they are standardly “young, poor, unmarried and socially isolated,” although it is notable that similar leniency is rarely extended to young, poor, and socially isolated male murderers. (Steven Pinker, “Why They Kill Their Newborns”, The New York Times, November 2, 1997.)

A number of strategies have been proposed and implemented to try to address the problem of female infanticide, along with the related phenomena of sex-selective abortion and abandonment and neglect of girl children. Zeng et al.‘s prescriptions for Chinese policymakers can easily be generalized to other countries where female infanticide is rife:

The principle of equality between men and women should be more widely promoted through the news media to change the attitude of son preference and improve the awareness of the general public on this issue; the principle should also be reflected in specific social and economic policies to protect the basic rights of women and children, especially female children. … Government regulations prohibiting the use of prenatal sex identification techniques for nonmedical purposes should be strictly enforced, and violators should be punished accordingly. The laws that punish people who commit infanticide, abandonment, and neglect of female children, and the laws and regulations on the protection of women and children[,] should be strictly enforced. The campaigns to protect women and children from being kidnapped or sold into servitude should be effectively strengthened. Family planning programs should focus on effective public education, good counseling and service delivery, and the fully voluntary participation of the community and individuals to increase contraceptive prevalence, reduce unplanned pregnancies, and minimize the need for an induced abortion. (Zeng, et al., p. 298.)

http://www.gendercide.org/case_infanticide.html

All Girls Allowed – China Gendercide

Esta é a realidade do controle populacional na China. milhões de bebés mortos por ano, crianças meninas são abandonadas, mulheres grávidas são levadas ‘a força pela policia de aborto coercitivo, morrem as mães por falta de atendimento ‘a saúde inclusive após o aborto provocado pela policia. Hoje a população da China tem – 27 milhoes de homens a mais do que mulheres por causa do generocidio; –  abandono; – suicidio; – trafico de crianças, pois meninas são mortas; – meninas, vitimas do programa governamental do one-child policy .

Tráfico, assassinato e abandono dos bebés devem ser reconhecidos como violações dos direitos humanos. Em vez disso, as injustiças são comuns e ninguém se surpreende com a sua ocorrência regular. Os relógios do mundo andam sem examinar como a crise demográfica da China e dos direitos humanos, estao a piorar rapida e gravemente. Para entender melhor o problema, verifique as páginas cuidadosamente com as pesquisas estatísticas nos links abaixo. Todas as estatísticas dizem respeito especificamente à China, e são tomadas a partir de fontes altamente confiáveis, que são citadas.”

 

All Girls Allowed – China Gendercide

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All Girls Allowed

http://www.allgirlsallowed.org/

– 27 MILHOES de HOMENS a mais do que mulheres por causa do GENEROCIDIO; –  ABANDONO; – SUICIDIO; – TRAFICO DE CRIANÇAS, POIS MENINAS SÃO MORTAS; – MENINAS, VITIMAS DO PROGRAMA GOVERNAMENTAL DO ONE-CHILD POLICY

http://vimeo.com/20926431

Statistics About Gender Imbalance in China

http://www.allgirlsallowed.org/category/topics/gender-imbalance-china

All Girls Allowed

Killing, trafficking and abandonment of baby girls should be recognized as human rights atrocities. Instead,  the injustices are commonplace and no one is surprised by their regular occurrence.  The world watches as China’s demographic crisis and human rights record rapidly worsen.  To better understand the problem, check out the thoroughly researched statistics pages linked below.  All statistics pertain specifically to China and are taken from highly reliable sources, which are cited within.

http://vimeo.com/20926431http://vimeo.com/20926431http://vimeo.com/20926431http://vimeo.com/20926431
Read more: http://www.allgirlsallowed.org/about/statistics#ixzz3HonlnQo0

Statistics About Gender Imbalance in China

http://vimeo.com/27309018http://vimeo.com/27309018http://vimeo.com/27309018

Statistics About China’s One-Child Policy

http://vimeo.com/20926431http://vimeo.com/20926431

http://www.allgirlsallowed.org/category/topics/gender-imbalance-chinaParte superior do formulário

Parte inferior do formulário

Gender Imbalance in China

Gender Imbalance in China Statistics

Statistics About Gender Imbalance in China

(Click here to return to “Statistics About China’s One-Child Policy”)

Gender Imbalance Statistics

Sex ratios are presented as the number of boys per 100 girls.  The biologically natural sex ratio is 105, which means that 105 boys are born for every 100 girls.  That figure is also represented as 105:100.

Gendercide in China

The term “gendercide” was coined by American feminist Mary Anne Warren.[i]

While some researchers have suggested that Hepatitis is responsible for the high sex ratio, this is not supported by the evidence.  Looking at the 2000 census data, if a second child is a male it will arrive, on average, 4 months later than a second born female.  This delay in birth indicates that there is human intervention, abortions or infanticide, taking place before the birth of a male second child.[ii]

In 2005, there were 32 million more men than women under 20 in China.[iii]

In 2007, the national government estimated that China has 37 million more males than females.  By 2020, the Chinese government estimates that there will be at least 30 million men of marriageable age that may be unable to find a spouse.[iv]

In 2005, more than 1.1 million excess births of boys occurred.[v]

According to the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, “the gender imbalance has been growing wider year after year.”[vi]

The most normal sex ratios are seen where the One-Child Policy is most permissive.[vii]

The One-Child Policy seems to be causally linked to the increased sex ratio in China. Mothers who face stricter restrictions and higher fines are more likely to have a son once they are facing possible punishment.  One example is the birth rates of women who have had a single daughter.  The sex ratio of children born after this first daughter changes based on the policy being enforced, with the mothers in the one child area being 3 percentage points more likely to have a son.[viii]

China alone stands to have as many unmarried young men—“bare branches”, as they are known—as the entire population of young men in America.  At present, there are 40 million American men under 20.  In 2020, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences estimates that there will be 40 million more Chinese men than women in that same age group.[ix]

Chinese men are already having trouble finding brides, with 88% of all single Chinese between 35 and 39 being male. In this same age group one finds that 99% of females are married.[x]

For reference, there are a total of 37.3 million people who live in California and 25.1 million who live in Texas.[xi]

Dudley Poston, a Professor of Sociology at Texas A&M University, estimates that if China’s sex ratio holds steady there will be a projected 55 million extra males by 2020.  Unfortunately, even if it improved to almost natural levels by 2020 there will still be an excess of 51 million males.[xii]

It’s been projected that in 2013 one in ten Chinese men will not have a female counterpart, and by the late 2020s one in five Chinese men will be without a female counterpart.[xiii]

The total U.S. population is just over 300 million.  There are over 100 million “missing” girls in the world, of which about half would have been born in China.[xiv]

In fact, some experts estimate that if the gender ratio in Asia had stayed at the natural level (105:100) for the past few decades the continent would have 163 million more women.[xv]

Sex selective abortion accounts for almost all the excess males.[xvi]

An ultrasound, which can identify the gender of an unborn fetus, costs $12 in China.[xvii]

Avraham Ebenstein, an economist, found that when making decisions about sex selection, Chinese families viewed a first-born son to have a worth of about 1.85 years of income, while the first-born girl held a value of only about 0.43 years of income.[xviii]

In 2006, the National People’s Congress Standing Committee considered, but did not pass, a proposed amendment that would have criminalized sex-selective abortion by banning the use of ultrasound for gender identification.  Only five provinces have passed similar measures, and the government has yet to take any action at the national level.[xix]

In 2007 China Daily reported, “although sex selection is banned by the Population and Family Planning Law and the Law on Maternal and Infant Health, there are currently no provisions on the applicable punishment for such acts.”[xx]

Contrary to common thought, sex ratio at birth has a positive correlation with education, possibly because well-educated women choose (or are forced) to have less children, and therefore are will to have sex selective abortions earlier on than their rural counterparts.  Another possibility is that better educated mothers have more access to, and ability to pay for, sex determination (ultrasounds).[xxi]

In Suining city, people will pay ultrasound technicians up to $150 in bribes to determine the gender of their fetus, which is only one-tenth of the fine they would have to pay for having a child without a birth permit.[xxii]

Gendercide in China and other countries has far reaching consequences; the United Nations Development Programme is estimating that the global sex ratio at birth has risen from 105:100, in the period between 1975 and 1980, to 107:100 in the period between 2005 and 2010.[xxiii]

Sex Ratio vs. GDP per Capita: China, 1953-2005 (boys per 100 girls)[xxiv]

National Sex Ratios in China

Sex Ratios at birth over time in China:[xxv]

106:100 in 1979 (106 boys for every 100 girls)

111:100 in 1988

117:100 in 2001

120:100 in 2005

According to the US Congressional-Executive Commission on China, as of January, 2010, the average male-to-female sex ratio for the infant-to-four-year-old age group in China is 123.26 males for every 100 females (123.26:100).[xxvi]

Six provinces have sex ratios of over 130:100 in the 1-4 age group.[xxvii]

Two provinces, Jiangxi and Henan, have ratios of over 140:100 in the 1-4 age group.[xxviii]

Four provinces—Anhui, Guangdong, Hunan, and Hainan—have ratios of over 130:100 in the 1-4 age group.[xxix]

Seven provinces have ratios between 120:100 and 129:100 in the 1-4 age group.[xxx]

Sex ratios are highest in the age group of 1-4 years and in rural areas, which will likely increase social tensions as millions of men are unable to find brides.[xxxi]

Only two provinces, Tibet and Xinjiang, had sex ratios within normal limits across the age range.  These two provinces are largely inhabited by minority ethnic groups and have more lenient family planning laws.[xxxii]

Between 1986 and 2005 there was an increase in excess males at birth in all provinces except Xinjiang.[xxxiii]

The total sex ratio at birth is over 130:100 in three provinces (Shaanxi, Anhui, and Jiangxi) and over 120:100 in 14 provinces.[xxxiv]

As an example, in 2007, Lianyungang city had a gender ratio of 163:100 for children under 5.[xxxv]

Another city, Suining city, had a birth ratio of 152:100 in 2007.[xxxvi]

There is a gradient between urban (115:100), town (120:100), and rural (123:100) sex ratios at birth.[xxxvii]

Wealthier and more educated provinces, where traditional preference for sons is changing, produced medium sex ratios.  A study in 2001 showed that more than 50% of women of reproductive age in wealthier provinces express no preference for a son.[xxxviii]

The provinces with the highest sex ratios are clustered together in the central-southern region.[xxxix]

Recently, an economist suggested combating the unbalanced sex ratios by giving families with only daughters a subsidy worth one year of income.  He projected that doing so would decrease the number of missing girls by 67%. Another solution he put forward was to implement a three child policy, which he says would reduce the number of missing girls by 56%.[xl]

Sex Ratios for 2nd and 3rd Children in China

The sex ratio at birth for first children is slightly high in cities and towns but was within normal limits in rural areas; however, the ratio rose very steeply for second or more children in cities (138:100), towns (137:100), and rural areas (146:100).[xli]

There were very high sex ratios for second children in Anhui (190:100) and Jiangsu (192:100).[xlii]

For third births, the sex ratio rose to over 200:100 in four provinces.[xliii]

In Beijing, among third children, almost three baby boys are born for every baby girl (almost 300:100).[xliv]

The sex ratio increased steadily from 108:100 for those born between 1985 and 1989 to 124:100 for those born between 2000 and 2004.[xlv]

In rural areas, sex ratios rose steeply for second order births, where it reached 146:100. Nine provinces had ratios of over 160:100 for second order births.[xlvi]

In 2000, at least half of the female fetuses that would have been a second order, or higher, daughter were aborted.[xlvii]

Conservatively, between 1990 and 2000, 5.9 million girls went missing, with the increased first and second birth sex ratio responsible for 97% of those girls.[xlviii]

One particular variant of the one child policy, which allows a second child if the first is a girl, leads to the highest sex ratios.[xlix]

China’s Sex Ratios in the 1-4 age group by Province (# of boys born for every 100 girls)[l]

Male Crime Statistics in China

China’s crime rate has nearly doubled in the last 20 years.[li]

Incidents of social unrest have risen from about 40,000 in 2001 to over 90,000 in 2009.[lii]

It was found that sex ratios and crime rate were connected, with just a one percent increase in sex ratio leading to a five percent increase in crime rate.[liii]

These incidents of social unrest are becoming larger, more violent, more likely to cross provincial borders, and more diverse in terms of participants and grievances.[liv]

A study concluded that increased sex ratios are correlated with increased bride abduction, trafficking of women, rape and prostitution.[lv]

Unmarried men between the ages of 24 and 35 are also found to be three times more likely to murder than their married counterparts.[lvi]

High male sex ratios can lead to more authoritarian forms of government in an effort to crack down on crime.[lvii]

High male sex ratios also lead to a lower rate of female literacy and workforce participation.[lviii]

Unmarried men in China are almost always poor and uneducated, 74% don’t have a high school diploma.  This number increases in the rural areas of China to 97%, with 40% or rural bachelors also being illiterate.[lix]

The tensions associated with so many bachelors in China’s big cities might tempt its future leaders to mobilize this excess manpower and go pick a fight, or invade another country. China is already co-opting poor unmarried young men into the People’s Liberation Army and the paramilitary People’s Armed Police.[lx]

According to German scholar Gunnar Heinsohn, European imperial expansion after 1500 was the result of a male “youth bulge.”  Japan’s imperial expansion after 1914 was the result of a similar male youth bulge.  During the Cold War, it was male youth-bulge countries—Algeria, El Salvador, and Lebanon—that saw the worst civil wars and revolutions.  Heinsohn has also linked the recent rise of Islamist extremism in countries like Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan to an Islamic male youth bulge.[lxi]

Political scientists Valerie Hudson and Andrea den Boer warn that China and India could be the next countries that, as a result of a surplus of men, will see increased violence and extremism.[lxii]

Niall Ferguson, Professor of History at Harvard University, argues that the surplus of men in China will lead to domestic instability or militaristic expansionism, or even imperialism.  This is all the more likely with the shrill nationalism already in Asia.[lxiii]

Previous societies with large numbers of unattached men have turned to a more authoritarian political system.[lxiv]

China’s gender imbalance is a powerful, driving force behind trafficking in women and sexual slavery, not only in China, but all over Asia.  According to a statement by the United States Department of State, “Women and children are trafficked into [China] from North Korea, Vietnam, Burma, Mongolia and Thailand.”  These women are trafficked into China and forced into marriages, employment, and sexual exploitation.[lxv]

Many unattached men migrate from rural areas to urban destinations, patronizing prostitutes there. In doing so, these men could turn China’s HIV epidemic – now confined to certain high-risk populations – into a more generalized one by creating “bridging” populations from high- to low-risk individuals. Such male bridging populations have fueled HIV epidemics in Cambodia and sub-Saharan Africa.[lxvi]

Women currently make up approximately 80% of an estimated 50,000 to 100,000 North Korean refugees in China, and of these women, an estimated 90% become victims of trafficking.[lxvii]

Chinese families’ preference for sons, and the growing gender imbalance, increasing numbers of male children are trafficked for adoption, and women and girls are trafficked for forced marriages and commercial sexual exploitation.

Article 240 of China’s Criminal Law defines the trafficking of persons as ‘‘abducting, kidnapping, buying, trafficking in, fetching, sending, or transferring a woman or child, for the purpose of selling the victim.’’ This definition does not automatically prohibit forms of trafficking such as forced adult and child labor, commercial sex trade of minors over 14 years old, or trafficking of men, which are covered under Article 3 of the UN TIP Protocol.[lxviii]


[i]Gendercide: The Implications of Sex Selection, by Mary Anne Warren, Published 1985

[ii]Avraham Ebenstein, “The ‘Missing Girls’ of China and the Unintended Consequences of the One Child Policy,” Journal of Human Resources 45.1 (2010): 87-115. http://pluto.huji.ac.il/~ebenstein/Ebenstein_OneChildPolicy_2010.pdf

[iii]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

[iv]U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2008, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=110_house_hearings&docid=f:45233.pdf

[v]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

[vi]The Economist, The war on baby girls:  Gendercide:  Killed, aborted or neglected, at least 100m girls have disappeared—and the number is rising, March 4, 2010

[vii]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

[viii]Avraham Ebenstein, “The ‘Missing Girls’ of China and the Unintended Consequences of the One Child Policy,” Journal of Human Resources 45.1 (2010): 87-115. http://pluto.huji.ac.il/~ebenstein/Ebenstein_OneChildPolicy_2010.pdf

[ix]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences & U.S. Census

[x]Tucker, Joseph Da, et al. “Surplus men, sex work, and the spread of HIV in China.” AIDS 19.6 (2005): 539-547. http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/fulltext/2005/04080/surplus_men,_sex_work,_and_the_spread_of_hiv_in.1.aspx

[xi]Dudley Poston, “Statement for Congressional Press Conference on the Issue of Gendercide and its Implications for Global Security,” All Girls Allowed, June 1, 2011. http://www.allgirlsallowed.org/statement-gendercide-and-implications-global-security

[xii]Dudley Poston, “Statement for Congressional Press Conference on the Issue of Gendercide and its Implications for Global Security,” All Girls Allowed, June 1, 2011. http://www.allgirlsallowed.org/statement-gendercide-and-implications-global-security

[xiii]Jiang Quanbao et al., “Son Preference and the Marriage Squeeze in China: An integrated Analysis of the First Marriage and the Remarriage Market,” in Watering the Neighbour’s Garden (Paris: CICRED, 2007).

[xiv]The Economist, The war on baby girls:  Gendercide:  Killed, aborted or neglected, at least 100m girls have disappeared—and the number is rising, March 4, 2010; U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2008, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=110_house_hearings&docid=f:45233.pdf

[xv]Christophe Z. Guilmoto, “Sex Ratio Imbalance in Asia: Trends, Consequences, and Policy Responses” (paper presented at Fourth Asia Pacific Conference on Reproductive and Sexual Health and Rights, 2007) http://tinyurl.com/4ldcpgd

[xvi]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

[xvii]The Economist, The war on baby girls:  Gendercide:  Killed, aborted or neglected, at least 100m girls have disappeared—and the number is rising, March 4, 2010

[xviii]Avraham Ebenstein, “Estimating a Dynamic Model of Sex Selection in China,” Demography, May 19, 2011. doi:10.1007/s13524-011-0030-7

[xix]U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[xx]U.S. State Department, U.S. Department of State 2010 Human Rights Report on China, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/eap/154382.htm

[xxi]Avraham Ebenstein, “Estimating a Dynamic Model of Sex Selection in China,” Demography, May 19, 2011. doi:10.1007/s13524-011-0030-7

[xxii]Hvistendahl, “Half the Sky.” Figures adjusted to 2011 currency rates.

[xxiii]Eberstadt, Nicholas. “A Global War Against Baby Girls: Sex-Selective Abortion Becomes a Worldwide Practice.”  American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, May 1, 2011. http://www.allgirlsallowed.org/global-war-against-baby-girls-sex-selective-abortion-becomes-worldwide-practice

[xxiv]Lavely, William. First Impressions of the 2000 Census of China; 2005 China One Percent Population Survey. Angus Maddison, “Per Capita GDP,” Historical Statistics for the World Economy:  1-2003 AD, table 3

[xxv]Kang C, Wang Y. Sex ratio at birth. In: Theses Collection of 2001 National Family Planning and Reproductive Health Survey. Beijing: China Population Publishing House, 2003:88-98. (referenced in NEJM)

[xxvi]U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2010

[xxvii]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

[xxviii]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

[xxix]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

[xxx]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

[xxxi]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

[xxxii]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

[xxxiii]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

[xxxiv]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

[xxxv]“China Warned on Gender Imbalance,” BBC, August 24, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/6962650.stm

[xxxvi]Mara Hvistendahl, Unnatural Selection: Choosing Boys Over Girls, and the Consequences of a World Full of Men. New York: PublicAffairs, 2011.

[xxxvii]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

[xxxviii]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

[xxxix]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

[xl]Avraham Ebenstein, “Estimating a Dynamic Model of Sex Selection in China,” Demography, May 19, 2011. doi:10.1007/s13524-011-0030-7

[xli]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

[xlii]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

[xliii]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

[xliv]The Economist, The war on baby girls:  Gendercide:  Killed, aborted or neglected, at least 100m girls have disappeared—and the number is rising, March 4, 2010

[xlv]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

[xlvi]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

[xlvii]Eberstadt, Nicholas. “A Global War Against Baby Girls: Sex-Selective Abortion Becomes a Worldwide Practice.”  American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, May 1, 2011. http://www.allgirlsallowed.org/global-war-against-baby-girls-sex-selective-abortion-becomes-worldwide-practice

[xlviii]Avraham Ebenstein, “The ‘Missing Girls’ of China and the Unintended Consequences of the One Child Policy,” Journal of Human Resources 45.1 (2010): 87-115. http://pluto.huji.ac.il/~ebenstein/Ebenstein_OneChildPolicy_2010.pdf

[xlix]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

[l]British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

[li]The Economist, The war on baby girls:  Gendercide:  Killed, aborted or neglected, at least 100m girls have disappeared—and the number is rising, March 4, 2010

[lii]Foreign Affairs, China’s Dilemma: Social Change and Political Reform, George J. Gilboy and Eric Heginbotham, October 14, 2010

[liii]Lena Edlund et al., More Men, More Crime: Evidence from China’s One-Child Policy, Institute for the Study of Labor Discussion Paper Series (Bonn, Germany: 2007). Referenced in Mara Hvistendahl, Unnatural Selection: Choosing Boys Over Girls, and the Consequences of a World Full of Men. New York: PublicAffairs, 2011, page 222.

[liv]Foreign Affairs, China’s Dilemma: Social Change and Political Reform, George J. Gilboy and Eric Heginbotham, October 14, 2010

[lv]“Sex ratios and crime: evidence from China’s one-child policy”, by Lena Edlund, Hongbin Li, Junjian Yi and Junsen Zhang. Institute for the Study of Labour, Bonn. Discussion Paper 3214; The Economist, The war on baby girls:  Gendercide:  Killed, aborted or neglected, at least 100m girls have disappeared—and the number is rising, March 4, 2010

[lvi]Robert Wright, The Moral Animal (New York: Vintage, 1994), 100.

[lvii]“Bare Branches”, by Valerie Hudson and Andrea den Boer. MIT Press, 2004; The Economist, The war on baby girls:  Gendercide:  Killed, aborted or neglected, at least 100m girls have disappeared—and the number is rising, March 4, 2010

[lviii]Valerie M. Hudson and Andrea M. den Boer, Bare Branches: The Security Implications of Asia’s Surplus Male Population (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2005), 203.

[lix]Tucker, Joseph Da, et al. “Surplus men, sex work, and the spread of HIV in China.” AIDS 19.6 (2005): 539-547. http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/fulltext/2005/04080/surplus_men,_sex_work,_and_the_spread_of_hiv_in.1.aspx

[lx]New York Times, Dudley Poston & Peter Morrison, China: Bachelor Bomb, September 14, 2005

[lxi]Niall Ferguson, Professor of History at Harvard in Newsweek.  Men Without Women: The ominous rise of Asia’s bachelor generation. March 6, 2011.  http://www.newsweek.com/2011/03/06/men-without-women.html

[lxii]Niall Ferguson, Professor of History at Harvard in Newsweek.  Men Without Women: The ominous rise of Asia’s bachelor generation. March 6, 2011.  http://www.newsweek.com/2011/03/06/men-without-women.html

[lxiii]Niall Ferguson, Professor of History at Harvard in Newsweek.  Men Without Women: The ominous rise of Asia’s bachelor generation. March 6, 2011.  http://www.newsweek.com/2011/03/06/men-without-women.html

[lxiv]New York Times, Dudley Poston & Peter Morrison, China: Bachelor Bomb, September 14, 2005

[lxv]Lagon, Mark P. “Trafficking in China.” Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in

Persons, United States Department of State, Congressional Human Rights Caucus Briefing,

Washington, D.C. October 31, 2007; United States Department of State 2008 Human Rights

Report: China (released February 25, 2009), p. 18

[lxvi]New York Times, Dudley Poston & Peter Morrison, China: Bachelor Bomb, September 14, 2005

[lxvii]U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2010, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_house_committee_prints&docid=f:61507.pdf

[lxviii]U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2010, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_house_committee_prints&docid=f:61507.pdf

Articles on Gender Imbalance in China

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A terceira mão do fumante é o tabagista passivo. Neurotoxidade do tabagismo, mais razões para parar de fumar

A terceira mão do fumante é o tabagista passivo. Neurotoxidade do tabagismo, mais razões para parar de fumar.


A queima do tabaco produz uma fumaça de gás carbonico, metais, nicotina, arsenico, mercúrio, cloro e outras substancias tóxicas. A terceira mão do fumante, é a que sofre acentuadamente os efeitos adversos do tabagismo e da neurotoxidade do mesmo, é a população de crianças inclusive as que estão em gestação.


Trata-se dos tabagistas passivos, a fumaça da queima do tabaco é potente neurotóxico que altera a estrutura do sistema nervoso. Estas alterações neurológicas são observadas na falta de atenção e memória, em deficiências que podem incluir autismo, dificuldades de aprendizagem, retardo mental e outros problemas neurocomportamentais, deficiencias cognitivas.


Cristiane Rozicki

Third-hand smoke: Another reason to quit smoking


Published: Monday, December 29, 2008 – 12:28
disponivel em

Need another reason to add “Quit Smoking” to your New Year’s resolutions list? How about the fact that even if you choose to smoke outside of your home or only smoke in your home when your children are not there – thinking that you’re keeping them away from second-hand smoke – you’re still exposing them to toxins? In the January issue of Pediatrics, researchers at MassGeneral Hospital for Children (MGHfC) and colleagues across the country describe how tobacco smoke contamination lingers even after a cigarette is extinguished – a phenomenon they define as “third-hand” smoke. Their study is the first to examine adult attitudes about the health risks to children of third-hand smoke and how those beliefs may relate to rules about smoking in their homes. “When you smoke – anyplace – toxic particulate matter from tobacco smoke gets into your hair and clothing,” says lead study author, Jonathan Winickoff, MD, MPH, assistant director of the MGHfC Center for Child and Adolescent Health Policy. “When you come into contact with your baby, even if you’re not smoking at the time, she comes in contact with those toxins. And if you breastfeed, the toxins will transfer to your baby in your breastmilk.” Winickoff notes that nursing a baby if you’re a smoker is still preferable to bottle-feeding, however.

Particulate matter from tobacco smoke has been proven toxic. According to the National Toxicology Program, these 250 poisonous gases, chemicals, and metals include hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, butane, ammonia, toluene (found in paint thinners), arsenic, lead, chromium (used to make steel), cadmium (used to make batteries), and polonium-210 (highly radioactive carcinogen). Eleven of the compounds are classified as Group 1 carcinogens, the most dangerous.

Small children are especially susceptible to third-hand smoke exposure because they can inhale near, crawl and play on, or touch and mouth contaminated surfaces. Third-hand smoke can remain indoors even long after the smoking has stopped. Similar to low-level lead exposure, low levels of tobacco particulates have been associated with cognitive deficits among children, and the higher the exposure level, the lower the reading score. These findings underscore the possibility that even extremely low levels of these compounds may be neurotoxic and, according to the researchers, justify restricting all smoking in indoor areas inhabited by children.

“The dangers of third-hand smoke are very real,” says Winickoff, who is a professor of Pediatrics at Harvard Medical School and a member of the American Academy of Pediatrics’ Richmond Center. “Our goal was to find out if people who were aware of these harmful effects were less likely to smoke inside of their home.”

Winickoff’s team found that this was the case. In a survey of more than 1,500 households, 95.4 percent of nonsmokers versus 84.1 percent of smokers agreed that second-hand smoke harms the health of children, and 65.2 percent of nonsmokers versus 43.3 percent of smokers believed that third-hand smoke harms children. Strict rules prohibiting smoke in the home were more prevalent among nonsmokers – 88.4 percent versus 26.7 percent – but among both smokers and non-smokers, participants who agreed that environmental smoke was harmful to children’s health were more likely to have restrictions on smoking in their homes.

Winickoff’s study shows that increasing awareness of how third-hand smoke harms the health of children may encourage home smoking bans. It also will be important to incorporate knowledge about third-hand smoke contamination into current tobacco control campaigns, programs, and routine clinical practice.

Source: Massachusetts General Hospital

Tradução disponível em

Third-hand smoke: Another reason to quit smoking Terceiro mão fumo: Outra razão para deixar de fumar

Published: Monday, December 29, 2008 – 12:28 in Health & Medicine Publicado em: Segunda-feira, 29 de dezembro de 2008 – 12:28 em Sa

Need another reason to add “Quit Smoking” to your New Year’s resolutions list? Precisa de outro motivo para adicionar “para deixar de fumar” para a sua lista resoluções de Ano Novo? How about the fact that even if you choose to smoke outside of your home or only smoke in your home when your children are not there – thinking that you’re keeping them away from second-hand smoke – you’re still exposing them to toxins? Como sobre o facto de que mesmo se você escolher a fumar fora de sua casa ou só fuma em sua casa quando seus filhos não estão lá – pensando que você é mantê-las longe do fumo em segunda mão – ainda está a expô-los a toxinas ? In the January issue of Pediatrics , researchers at MassGeneral Hospital for Children (MGHfC) and colleagues across the country describe how tobacco smoke contamination lingers even after a cigarette is extinguished – a phenomenon they define as “third-hand” smoke. De janeiro a emissão de Pediatria, investigadores em MassGeneral Hospital for Children (MGHfC) e os colegas em todo o país descrevem como o fumo do tabaco contaminação retardatários, mesmo após um cigarro é extinta – um fenómeno que definem como “terceira mão” fumo. Their study is the first to examine adult attitudes about the health risks to children of third-hand smoke and how those beliefs may relate to rules about smoking in their homes. O estudo é o primeiro a analisar as atitudes adultos sobre os riscos para a saúde de crianças de terceira mão fumo e como essas crenças podem referir-se às regras sobre o fumo em suas casas. “When you smoke – anyplace – toxic particulate matter from tobacco smoke gets into your hair and clothing,” says lead study author, Jonathan Winickoff, MD, MPH, assistant director of the MGHfC Center for Child and Adolescent Health Policy. “Quando fumo – em qualquer lugar – tóxico partículas de fumo do tabaco recebe em seu cabelo e roupas”, diz estudo conduzir autor, Jonathan Winickoff, MD, MPH, Director Adjunto do Centro de MGHfC Política de Saúde da Criança e do Adolescente. “When you come into contact with your baby, even if you’re not smoking at the time, she comes in contact with those toxins. And if you breastfeed, the toxins will transfer to your baby in your breastmilk.” “Quando você entrar em contato com o seu bebé, mesmo se você não fumar, no momento, ela entra em contacto com as toxinas. E se você amamentar, as toxinas irá transferir para o seu bebé no seu leite materno.” Winickoff notes that nursing a baby if you’re a smoker is still preferable to bottle-feeding, however. Winickoff enfermagem observa que um bebê se você for um fumante ainda é preferível ao uso de mamadeira, no entanto.

Particulate matter from tobacco smoke has been proven toxic. Partículas de fumaça do tabaco tem sido comprovada tóxicos. According to the National Toxicology Program, these 250 poisonous gases, chemicals, and metals include hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, butane, ammonia, toluene (found in paint thinners), arsenic, lead, chromium (used to make steel), cadmium (used to make batteries), and polonium-210 (highly radioactive carcinogen). De acordo com o National Toxicology Program, 250 destes gases tóxicos, produtos químicos e metais incluem cianeto de hidrogénio, monóxido de carbono, butano, amônia, tolueno (encontrado em tintas diluentes), arsénio, chumbo, cromo (usado para fazer aço), cádmio (usado para tornar as baterias), e polónio-210 (altamente radioactivos cancerígeno). Eleven of the compounds are classified as Group 1 carcinogens, the most dangerous. Onze dos compostos são classificados como cancerígenos Grupo 1, o mais perigoso.

Small children are especially susceptible to third-hand smoke exposure because they can inhale near, crawl and play on, or touch and mouth contaminated surfaces. Crianças pequenas são especialmente sensíveis à exposição à fumaça de terceira mão, porque podem inalar perto, rastrear e jogar em, ou toque em superfícies contaminadas e boca. Third-hand smoke can remain indoors even long after the smoking has stopped. Terceiro mão fumo em ambientes fechados pode permanecer mesmo após o tempo parou de fumar. Similar to low-level lead exposure, low levels of tobacco particulates have been associated with cognitive deficits among children, and the higher the exposure level, the lower the reading score. Similar ao baixo nível de chumbo exposição, os baixos níveis de tabaco partículas têm sido associados com déficits cognitivos entre as crianças, e ao maior nível de exposição, menor a pontuação leitura. These findings underscore the possibility that even extremely low levels of these compounds may be neurotoxic and, according to the researchers, justify restricting all smoking in indoor areas inhabited by children. Estes dados reforçam a possibilidade de que mesmo níveis extremamente baixos destes compostos podem ser neurotóxica e, de acordo com os pesquisadores, justificar uma restrição fumar em todos os recintos fechados áreas habitadas por crianças.

“The dangers of third-hand smoke are very real,” says Winickoff, who is a professor of Pediatrics at Harvard Medical School and a member of the American Academy of Pediatrics’ Richmond Center. “Os perigos de uma terceira mão fumo são reais”, diz Winickoff, que é um professor de pediatria na Harvard Medical School e um membro da American Academy of Pediatrics’ Richmond Center. “Our goal was to find out if people who were aware of these harmful effects were less likely to smoke inside of their home.” “Nosso objetivo era saber se as pessoas que estavam cientes destes efeitos nocivos eram menos propensos a fumar dentro de sua casa.”

Winickoff’s team found that this was the case. Winickoff da equipa considerou que este era o caso. In a survey of more than 1,500 households, 95.4 percent of nonsmokers versus 84.1 percent of smokers agreed that second-hand smoke harms the health of children, and 65.2 percent of nonsmokers versus 43.3 percent of smokers believed that third-hand smoke harms children. Em um levantamento de mais de 1.500 domicílios, 95,4 por cento dos não fumantes versus 84,1 por cento dos fumadores acordado que em segunda mão fumo prejudica a saúde das crianças, dos não fumantes e 65,2 por cento versus 43,3 por cento dos fumadores que acreditava terceira mão fumo prejudica crianças. Strict rules prohibiting smoke in the home were more prevalent among nonsmokers – 88.4 percent versus 26.7 percent – but among both smokers and non-smokers, participants who agreed that environmental smoke was harmful to children’s health were more likely to have restrictions on smoking in their homes. Regras rígidas que proíbem o fumo em casa foram mais prevalentes entre os não fumantes – 88,4 por cento versus 26,7 por cento -, mas entre ambos os fumantes e não fumantes, os participantes que acordaram que a fumaça ambiental foi prejudicial para a saúde das crianças foram mais propensos a ter restrições de fumar em suas casas .

Winickoff’s study shows that increasing awareness of how third-hand smoke harms the health of children may encourage home smoking bans. Winickoff do estudo mostra que a crescente consciência de como terceira mão fumar prejudica a saúde das crianças podem incentivar o tabagismo casa proibições. It also will be important to incorporate knowledge about third-hand smoke contamination into current tobacco control campaigns, programs, and routine clinical practice. Também será importante para integrar o conhecimento sobre terceira mão fumo contaminação em curso o controlo do tabaco campanhas, programas e de rotina na prática clínica.

Source: Massachusetts General Hospital Fonte: Massachusetts General Hospital

Neurotóxico. Efeitos adversos do tabagismo

Esta pesquisa científica demonstra e comprova que a exposição ‘a fumaça da queima da nicotina — trata-se de um tabagismo passivo — é potente neurotóxico que altera a estrutura do sistema nervoso. Estas alterações neurológicas manifestam-se, na prole, nas crianças, na falta de atenção e memória, em deficiências que podem incluir autismo, dificuldades de aprendizagem, retardo mental e outros problemas neurocomportamentais, deficiencias cognitivas.

Com este prejuízo ‘a saúde por causa da exposição ao tabagismo, a nicotina, um neurotóxico, é possível compreender a gravidade do mesmo — tabagismo — para a continuação da humanidade.
Cristiane Rozicki


O estudo está disponivel em:

Final Report: Developmental Neurotoxicity in Offspring Induced by Combined Maternal Exposure of Rats to Nicotine and Chlorpyrifos

E a tradução em

Centro Nacional de Investigação Ambiental

Final Report: Developmental Neurotoxicity in Offspring Induced by Combined Maternal Exposure of Rats to Nicotine and Chlorpyrifos Relatório Final: Developmental Neurotóxicas em Offspring Induzida por Combinada Ratos de exposição materna à nicotina e Clorpirifos

EPA Grant Number: R829399 EPA Grant Número: R829399
Title: Developmental Neurotoxicity in Offspring Induced by Combined Maternal Exposure of Rats to Nicotine and Chlorpyrifos Título: Developmental Neurotóxicas em Offspring Induzida por Combinada Ratos de exposição materna à nicotina e Clorpirifos
Investigators: Abou-Donia, Mohamed B. Investigadores: Abou-Donia, Mohamed B.
Institution: Duke University Medical Center Instituição: Duke University Medical Center
EPA Project Officer: Laessig, Susan A. EPA Project Officer: Laessig, Susan A.
Project Period: October 1, 2001 through September 30, 2004 Projeto Período: 1. De outubro de 2001 até 30 de Setembro de 2004
Project Amount: $750,000 Projecto Valor: $ 750.000
RFA: Children’s Vulnerability to Toxic Substances in the Environment (2001) RFA: Children’s Vulnerabilidade às Substâncias Tóxicas no Meio Ambiente (2001)
Research Category: Children’s Health , Health Effects Pesquisa Categoria: Saúde da Criança, Saúde Efeitos

Description: Descrição:

Objective: Objectivo:

The objective of this research project was to test the hypothesis that combined exposure to nicotine and chlorpyrifos (CPF) during the critical periods of development of cholinergic pathways in the central nervous system disrupts the structural organization of the cholinergic system and interferes with the cholinergic transmission, resulting in neurologic deficits such as impairments in learning and memory performance. O objectivo deste projecto de investigação foi testar a hipótese de que a exposição combinada à nicotina e clorpirifós (CPF) durante os períodos críticos de desenvolvimento das vias colinérgica no sistema nervoso central, perturba a organização estrutural do sistema colinérgico e interfere com a transmissão colinérgica, resultando em déficits neurológicos, tais como deficiências na aprendizagem e memória desempenho.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes): Resumo / Realizações (Resultados / Resultados):

The following has been accomplished during the 3-year funding period. A seguir, foi realizado durante os 3 anos de período de financiamento.

Year 1 Ano 1

The neurotoxic effects in the offspring on postnatal day (PND) 30 were studied following maternal exposure to nicotine and CPF, alone and in combination. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 gm) with known pregnancy dates were treated daily with nicotine (1mg/kg, sc, in normal saline) or CPF (0.1 mg/kg, dermal, in ethanol) or a combination of nicotine and CPF for the gestational days (GD) 4-20. Os efeitos neurotóxicos na prole em dia pós-natal (PND) 30 foram estudados após a exposição materna à nicotina e CPF, isoladamente e em combinação. Female ratos Sprague-Dawley (300-350 g), com a gravidez datas foram tratados diariamente com nicotina (1mg / kg, sc, em solução salina normal) ou CPF (0,1 mg / kg, dérmico, em etanol) ou uma combinação de nicotina e CPF para o gestacional dia (GD) 4-20. Control animals were treated with saline and ethanol. Controle os animais foram tratados com salina e etanol. Following parturition, the body weight and number of litters were recorded. Após parto, o peso corporal e do número de ninhadas foram registrados. There was no significant difference between the litter size or body weight of the offspring on PNDs 2, 9, and 16 between the control and treated groups. Não houve diferença significativa entre o tamanho ou o peso corporal da prole em PNDs 2, 9, e 16 entre os grupos controle e tratados. Following completion of the lactational period (PND 23), the animals were weighed according to sex. Male offspring from the mothers treated with nicotine alone gained significantly less weight by PND 30 compared to the control. Após a conclusão de o período de aleitamento (DPP 23), os animais foram pesados em função do sexo. Descendência masculina de mães tratadas com nicotina por si só ganharam significativamente menos peso por DPP 30 comparado ao controle. On PND 7, there was a significant increase in the brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the pups from the nicotine and CPF group, whereas plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity showed a significant increase (~167 and 176% of control) in the pups from the mothers treated with either CPF alone or in combination with nicotine, respectively. There was no change in the ligand binding for muscarinic or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the whole brains of PND 7 day offspring from any of the treatment groups. Em DPP 7, houve um aumento significativo no cérebro acetilcolinesterase (AChE) em actividade os filhotes da nicotina e CPF grupo, que butirilcolinesterase plasmática (EHF) mostraram um aumento significativo da actividade (~ 167 e 176% de controle) nos filhotes de as mães tratadas com CPF ou isoladamente ou em combinação com a nicotina, respectivamente. Não houve alteração na ligante obrigatório para receptores muscarínicos ou nicotínicos de acetilcolina no cérebro de todo o DPP 7 dias descendência de qualquer um dos grupos de tratamento. On PND 30, male offspring showed a significant increase in the AChE activity in the brainstem (~134-148 % of control) and cerebellum (~299-345 % of control) in all the treated groups. Em DPP 30, descendentes do sexo masculino apresentaram um aumento significativo na atividade da AChE no tronco cerebral (~ 134-148% de controle) e cerebelo (~ 299-345% do controle) em todos os grupos tratados. Females on PND 30 showed a significant increase in the AChE activity in the brainstem of the CPF-alone group and in the cerebellum of the pups from the combination of nicotine and CPF. Mulheres em 30 DPP mostraram um aumento significativo na atividade da AChE no tronco cerebral do CPF-alone grupo e no cerebelo dos filhotes a partir da combinação de nicotina e CPF. There was no change in the plasma BChE activity of male or female pups on PND 30. Histopathological evaluation by H&E staining did not show any gross pathological abnormalities. Não houve alteração no plasma EHF actividade de machos ou fêmeas filhotes sobre DPP 30. Avaliação histopatológica por H & E coloração não apresentaram quaisquer anormalidades patológicas. A significant increase in the immunostaining for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was observed in the cortex, the CA1 and CA3 subfields of hippocampus, and dentate gyrus on PND 30 in the pups from nicotine- and CPF-treated mothers. Um aumento significativo da imunomarcação para proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP) foi observada no córtex, os subcampos CA1 e CA3 do hipocampo, giro denteado e no DPP, em 30 os filhotes de nicotina e-CPF-mães tratadas. These data suggest that maternal exposure during the entire gestational period with low doses of nicotine and CPF, alone and in combination, does not lead to any significant observable developmental abnormalities in the offspring by PND 30. Estes dados sugerem que a exposição materna durante todo o período gestacional com baixas doses de nicotina e CPF, isoladamente e em combinação, não conduzir a qualquer desenvolvimento significativo observável anormalidades na prole pela DPP 30.

Year 2 Ano 2

During this period, the neurotoxic effects in the offspring on PND 60 were studied following maternal exposure to nicotine and CPF, alone and in combination. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 gm) with known pregnancy dates were treated daily with nicotine (1mg/kg, sc, in normal saline) or CPF (0.1 mg/kg, dermal, in ethanol) or a combination of nicotine and CPF from GD 4-20. Durante este período, os efeitos neurotóxicos na prole em DPP 60 foram estudados após a exposição materna à nicotina e CPF, isoladamente e em combinação. Female ratos Sprague-Dawley (300-350 g), com a gravidez datas foram tratados diariamente com nicotina (1mg / kg, sc, em solução salina normal) ou CPF (0,1 mg / kg, dérmico, em etanol) ou uma combinação de nicotina e CPF do GD 4-20. Control animals were treated with saline and ethanol. Controle os animais foram tratados com salina e etanol. On PND 60, the offspring were evaluated for cholinergic changes and pathological effects. Em DPP 60, os filhos foram avaliados para colinérgico mudanças e efeitos patológicos. Plasma BChE activity in the female offspring from CPF-treated mothers showed a significant increase (~183% of control). Plasma EHF actividade na prole da fêmea CPF-mães tratadas mostraram um aumento significativo (~ 183% de controle). Male offspring from mothers treated with either CPF or nicotine alone showed a significant increase in the AChE activity in the brainstem, whereas female offspring from mothers treated with either nicotine or a combination of nicotine and CPF showed a significant increase (~134 and 126 % of control, respectively) in AChE activity in the brainstem. Masculino prole de mães tratadas com nicotina ou CPF ou isoladamente mostraram um aumento significativo na atividade da AChE no tronco cerebral, enquanto que fêmeas descendentes de mães tratadas com nicotina ou seja uma combinação de nicotina e CPF mostraram um aumento significativo (~ 134 e 126% de controle, respectivamente) AChE em atividade no tronco cerebral. No significant changes were observed in the ligand binding densities for a4 b2 and a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the cortex. Não foram observadas mudanças significativas nas densidades ligante vinculativo para a4 b2 e A7 receptores nicotínicos de acetilcolina no córtex. Histopathological evaluation using cresyl violet staining showed a significant decrease in surviving Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum of the offspring from nicotine-treated mothers. Histopatológico avaliação utilizando cresilo coloração violeta mostraram uma diminuição significativa nos neurônios sobreviventes Purkinje no cerebelo da prole de mães tratadas com nicotina. An increase in GFAP immunostaining was observed in the cerebellum of the offspring from the mothers treated with nicotine. Um aumento de GFAP imunocoloração foi observada no cerebelo da prole de mães tratadas com a nicotina. The results of these studies suggest that maternal exposure to real-life levels of nicotine and/or CPF causes differential regulation of brainstem AChE activity. Os resultados desses estudos sugerem que a exposição materna ao da vida real dos níveis de nicotina e / ou CPF causas diferencial regulamento do tronco encefálico AChE actividade. Nicotine also caused a decrease in the surviving neurons and an increased expression of GFAP in cerebellum of the offspring on PND 60. Nicotina também causou uma diminuição na neurônios sobreviventes e um aumento da expressão de GFAP em cerebelo da prole em DPP 60.

Year 3 Ano 3

During the last and final year, the neurochemical, neurobehavioral, and neuropathological studies were carried out on PND 90 offspring following maternal exposure to nicotine and CPF, alone and in combination. Durante o último e último ano, o neuroquímicos, neurocomportamentais, neuropatológicos e estudos foram realizados sobre DPP 90 crias após a exposição materna à nicotina e CPF, isoladamente e em combinação. Timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350g) were treated daily with nicotine (3.3mg/kg, in bacteriostatic water via subcutaneous implantation of mini-osmotic pump), CPF (1.0 mg/kg, dermal, ethanol) or a combination of nicotine and CPF on GD 4-20. Datados grávida ratos Sprague-Dawley (300-350g) foram tratados diariamente com nicotina (3.3mg/kg, em bacteriostatic água através de implante subcutâneo de mini-bombas osmóticas), CPF (1,0 mg / kg, dérmico, etanol) ou uma combinação de nicotina e CPF sobre GD 4-20. Control animals were treated with bacteriostatic water via subcutaneous implantation of mini-osmotic pump and dermal application of ethanol. Controle os animais foram tratados com água bacteriostática implante subcutâneo através de mini-bombas osmóticas e aplicação cutânea de etanol. Offspring on PND 90 were evaluated for neurobehavioral performance, changes in the ligand binding for a7 and a4 b2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and neuropathological alterations in the cerebellum. Offspring sobre DPP 90 foram avaliados para neurocomportamentais desempenho, as mudanças na ligand obrigatório para A7 e A4 b2 receptores nicotínicos de acetilcolina, e alterações neuropatológicas no cerebelo. Beam-walk time, incline plane, and forepaw grip strength showed significant impairments in both male and female offspring from mothers treated with nicotine and CPF, alone or in combination. Boca-walk tempo, inclineis avião, forepaw aderência e resistência mostraram deficiências significativas em ambos os sexos masculino e feminino prole de mães tratadas com nicotina e CPF, isoladamente ou em combinação. Male offspring showed greater deficits in behavioral performance than the female offspring. Descendentes do sexo masculino apresentaram maiores déficits no desempenho comportamental do que os descendentes do sexo feminino. Female offspring from mothers treated with a combination of nicotine and CPF showed a significant increase in plasma BChE activity. Mulher prole de mães tratadas com uma combinação de nicotina e CPF apresentaram um aumento significativo no plasma EHF actividade. Brain regional AChE activity showed differential changes in male and female offspring. Brain regionais AChE atividade mostrou diferencial mudanças na descendência masculina e feminina. Brainstem and cerebellum of female offspring from mothers treated with nicotine or CPF, alone or in combination, showed a significant increase, whereas brainstem of male offspring from mothers treated with nicotine alone or a combination of nicotine and CPF showed a significant increase in AChE. Tronco encefálico e cerebelo de mulheres descendentes de mães tratadas com nicotina ou CPF, isoladamente ou em combinação, mostrou um aumento significativo, enquanto o tronco cerebral de homens descendentes de mães tratadas com nicotina isolado ou uma combinação de nicotina e CPF apresentaram um aumento significativo da AChE. Histopathological evaluations using cresyl violet staining showed a significant decrease in surviving Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum. An increase in GFAP immuno-staining was observed in cerebellum white matter as well as granular cell layer of cerebellum.

Histopatológico avaliações usando cresilo coloração violeta revelou uma diminuição significativa nos neurônios sobreviventes Purkinje no cerebelo. O aumento da GFAP imuno-coloração branca cerebelar foi observado em questão bem como a camada de células granulares do cerebelo. These data suggest that maternal exposure to nicotine and CPF, alone and in combination, produces neurobehavioral deficits in male and female offspring, a decrease in the surviving neurons, and an increased expression of GFAP in the cerebellum in the offspring at PND 90. Estes dados sugerem que a exposição materna à nicotina e CPF, isoladamente e em combinação, produz déficits neurocomportamentais na descendência masculina e feminina, uma diminuição do sobrevivente neurônios, e um aumento da expressão de GFAP no cerebelo na prole em DPP 90.

Conclusions: Conclusões:

There is an increasing concern about developmental neurotoxicity following exposure to insecticides and other neurotoxins, such as nicotine. Existe uma crescente preocupação com desenvolvimento neurotoxicidade após exposição a inseticidas e outros neurotoxinas, como a nicotina. Both CPF and nicotine are developmental neurotoxic agents that primarily affect the cholinergic pathways. Tanto CPF e nicotina são neurotóxicos agentes de desenvolvimento que afectam principalmente as vias colinérgicas. Maternal smoking could produce an added toxic burden to the health of the children born to smoking mothers because of concurrent exposure to CPF and nicotine during fetal development. Tabagismo materno pode produzir uma carga tóxica para acrescentado para a saúde das crianças nascidas de mães fumantes devido à exposição concomitante ao CPF e nicotina durante desenvolvimento fetal. In the present study, we evaluated the neurotoxicity in the offspring at PND 90 following maternal exposure to nicotine and CPF, alone and in combination, during the gestation days. No presente estudo, nós avaliamos a neurotoxicidade na prole em DPP 90 seguintes a exposição materna à nicotina e CPF, isoladamente e em combinação, durante a gestação dias. The doses and route of exposure to both chemicals were selected to approximate real-life scenarios. As doses e via de exposição para ambos os produtos químicos foram selecionados para aproximados da vida real cenários. The nicotine dose selected in our studies in rats produces plasma levels of nicotine similar to moderate smoking (~0.5-1 packs/day) by human smokers. A nicotina dose seleccionada em nossos estudos em ratos produz níveis plasmáticos de nicotina semelhante ao tabagismo moderada (~ 0,5-1 maços / dia) por humanos fumantes. CPF exposure was through dermal application at 1 mg/kg, which lies below the threshold to produce any fetal abnormalities. CPF através da aplicação cutânea exposição foi de 1 mg / kg, que se situa abaixo do limiar de produzir quaisquer anormalidades fetais. The findings of the present study show that maternal exposure to nicotine, alone or in combination with CPF, produces deficits in beam-walk time and forepaw grip in adult male offspring, whereas the female offspring showed significant deficits in beam-walk time following maternal exposure to nicotine alone. Os resultados do presente estudo mostram que a exposição materna a nicotina, isoladamente ou em combinação com o CPF, produz déficits de altura e pé-beam forepaw grip em adultos do sexo masculino prole, enquanto os descendentes do sexo feminino apresentaram déficits significativos em viga-walk tempo após a exposição materna à nicotina sozinha. There was a significant increase in AChE activity in brainstem following exposure to nicotine, alone and in combination with CPF, in both male and female offspring. Houve um aumento significativo na atividade AChE no tronco cerebral após a exposição à nicotina, isoladamente e em combinação com CPF, em ambos os sexos masculino e feminino prole. Neuropathological alterations in adult male and female offspring are characterized by a significant decrease in the number of surviving Purkinje neurons and an increase in expression of GFAP in the cerebellum, granular cell layer, and white matter following maternal treatment with nicotine and CPF, alone and in combination. Neuropatológico alterações nos adultos do sexo masculino e feminino descendentes são caracterizados por uma diminuição significativa no número de neurônios sobreviventes Purkinje e um aumento na expressão de GFAP no cerebelo, camada de células granulares, branca e após o tratamento materno com nicotina e CPF, isoladamente e em combinação. These results suggest that maternal exposure to real-life levels of nicotine and/or CPF produce neurobehavioral deficits and differential regulation of brainstem AChE activity in adult offspring. Estes resultados sugerem que a exposição materna ao da vida real dos níveis de nicotina e / ou CPF produzir déficits neurocomportamentais e diferenciado regulação da atividade no tronco cerebral AChE adultos prole. Maternal exposure to these chemicals also caused a decrease in the surviving neurons in certain brain regions. A exposição materna a estas substâncias químicas também causou uma diminuição na sobreviventes neurônios em determinadas regiões cerebrais. These changes may be important in assessing long-term neurological adverse health effects in human populations. Estas mudanças podem ser importantes na avaliação neurológica de longo prazo efeitos adversos para a saúde em populações humanas.

Verduras, legumes e frutas oferecem proteção contra a gripe

Disponível em: http://www.vnews.com.br/noticia.php?id=53407

15h45min – 16/07/2009
vídeo
Verduras, legumes e frutas oferecem proteção contra a gripe
Frutas, verduras, legumes… A diversidade da feira concentra uma farmácia natural. Convidamos uma nutricionista para mostrar os alimentos que ajudam a prevenir contra as gripes.

“As frutas e as verduras são fundamentais pra o uso e podem fortalecer o nosso sistema imunológico”, alerta Ana Elizabeth, nutricionista.

Com pouquíssimas calorias, a couve e a alface são muito ricas em vitamina a e sais minerais. Os legumes alaranjados como a cenoura, o jerimum ou abóbora também.

“Vão funcionar diretamente nas mucosas do corpo, melhorando as barreiras do corpo principalmente da área respiratória, gastrintestinal, contra a invasão de bactérias e de vírus”, explica a nutricionista.

E na hora de temperar, não deixe de acrescentar algumas doses de saúde à sua receita. É bom comprar sempre alho e cebola.

“Alho e cebola são considerados alimentos ótimos, porque eles são vasodilatadores e eles vão ajudar a soltar o catarro”, lembra a nutricionista.

Um dente de alho por dia na comida é suficiente para um adulto. Pra suprir a necessidade de vitamina C, um copo de suco de acerola por dia ou quatro porções de frutas, que podem ser diferentes: mamão, caju, abacaxi, goiaba, manga, limão, laranja…

“Quanto mais você variar, melhor pra você. Porque você ás vezes não vai pegar só a vitamina, vai pegar outros sais minerais que o corpo também precisa”, diz.

Outras dicas importantes: tome pelo menos um litro e meio de água por dia, para manter as vias aéreas úmidas, porque os vírus adoram ambientes secos.

Prefira alimentos ricos em zinco, como feijão, fígado de boi, cereais integrais, semente de abóbora, castanhas do pará e de caju.

O zinco ajuda as células a se prepararem para os ataques dos vírus. Já as castanhas têm um óleo que lubrifica o sistema respiratório e ainda combatem o mau colesterol.

E, se estiver gripado ou com sinusite, evite os leites com lactose. Os açúcares do leite estimulam a produção de secreções e, por isso, aumentam o tempo de recuperação.

Na mistura das frutas, um coquetel contra a gripe. O campeão de vendas leva acerola, laranja e limão. Basta misturar as três frutas com água e tomar como suco. Um copo por dia vai deixar seu organismo mais resistente.

Prefira a fruta natural. A polpa não tem a mesma concentração de nutrientes. Além da qualidade do nutriente, que é mais parecido com o que a gente precisa, ele também vai conter um volume maior de fibras que a polpa não teria.

E outra dica: beba o suco logo depois, ou no máximo 20 minutos depois que ele for preparado, assim as vitaminas estarão mais preservadas.

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