Gendercide – The war on baby girls

 The war on baby girls

The war on baby girls: Gendercide | The Economist

http://www.economist.com/node/15606229

 

The war on baby girls

Gendercide

Killed, aborted or neglected, at least 100m girls have disappeared—and the number is rising

Mar 4th 2010 | from the print edition

 

 

IMAGINE you are one half of a young couple expecting your first child in a fast-growing, poor country. You are part of the new middle class; your income is rising; you want a small family. But traditional mores hold sway around you, most important in the preference for sons over daughters. Perhaps hard physical labour is still needed for the family to make its living. Perhaps only sons may inherit land. Perhaps a daughter is deemed to join another family on marriage and you want someone to care for you when you are old. Perhaps she needs a dowry.

 

Now imagine that you have had an ultrasound scan; it costs $12, but you can afford that. The scan says the unborn child is a girl. You yourself would prefer a boy; the rest of your family clamours for one. You would never dream of killing a baby daughter, as they do out in the villages. But an abortion seems different. What do you do?

 

For millions of couples, the answer is: abort the daughter, try for a son. In China and northern India more than 120 boys are being born for every 100 girls. Nature dictates that slightly more males are born than females to offset boys’ greater susceptibility to infant disease. But nothing on this scale.

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For those who oppose abortion, this is mass murder. For those such as this newspaper, who think abortion should be “safe, legal and rare” (to use Bill Clinton’s phrase), a lot depends on the circumstances, but the cumulative consequence for societies of such individual actions is catastrophic. China alone stands to have as many unmarried young men—“bare branches”, as they are known—as the entire population of young men in America. In any country rootless young males spell trouble; in Asian societies, where marriage and children are the recognised routes into society, single men are almost like outlaws. Crime rates, bride trafficking, sexual violence, even female suicide rates are all rising and will rise further as the lopsided generations reach their maturity (see article).

It is no exaggeration to call this gendercide. Women are missing in their millions—aborted, killed, neglected to death. In 1990 an Indian economist, Amartya Sen, put the number at 100m; the toll is higher now. The crumb of comfort is that countries can mitigate the hurt, and that one, South Korea, has shown the worst can be avoided. Others need to learn from it if they are to stop the carnage.

 

The dearth and death of little sisters

 

Most people know China and northern India have unnaturally large numbers of boys. But few appreciate how bad the problem is, or that it is rising. In China the imbalance between the sexes was 108 boys to 100 girls for the generation born in the late 1980s; for the generation of the early 2000s, it was 124 to 100. In some Chinese provinces the ratio is an unprecedented 130 to 100. The destruction is worst in China but has spread far beyond. Other East Asian countries, including Taiwan and Singapore, former communist states in the western Balkans and the Caucasus, and even sections of America’s population (Chinese- and Japanese-Americans, for example): all these have distorted sex ratios. Gendercide exists on almost every continent. It affects rich and poor; educated and illiterate; Hindu, Muslim, Confucian and Christian alike.

 

Wealth does not stop it. Taiwan and Singapore have open, rich economies. Within China and India the areas with the worst sex ratios are the richest, best-educated ones. And China’s one-child policy can only be part of the problem, given that so many other countries are affected.

 

In fact the destruction of baby girls is a product of three forces: the ancient preference for sons; a modern desire for smaller families; and ultrasound scanning and other technologies that identify the sex of a fetus. In societies where four or six children were common, a boy would almost certainly come along eventually; son preference did not need to exist at the expense of daughters. But now couples want two children—or, as in China, are allowed only one—they will sacrifice unborn daughters to their pursuit of a son. That is why sex ratios are most distorted in the modern, open parts of China and India. It is also why ratios are more skewed after the first child: parents may accept a daughter first time round but will do anything to ensure their next—and probably last—child is a boy. The boy-girl ratio is above 200 for a third child in some places.

 

How to stop half the sky crashing down

Baby girls are thus victims of a malign combination of ancient prejudice and modern preferences for small families. Only one country has managed to change this pattern. In the 1990s South Korea had a sex ratio almost as skewed as China’s. Now, it is heading towards normality. It has achieved this not deliberately, but because the culture changed. Female education, anti-discrimination suits and equal-rights rulings made son preference seem old-fashioned and unnecessary. The forces of modernity first exacerbated prejudice—then overwhelmed it.

 

But this happened when South Korea was rich. If China or India—with incomes one-quarter and one-tenth Korea’s levels—wait until they are as wealthy, many generations will pass. To speed up change, they need to take actions that are in their own interests anyway. Most obviously China should scrap the one-child policy. The country’s leaders will resist this because they fear population growth; they also dismiss Western concerns about human rights. But the one-child limit is no longer needed to reduce fertility (if it ever was: other East Asian countries reduced the pressure on the population as much as China). And it massively distorts the country’s sex ratio, with devastating results. President Hu Jintao says that creating “a harmonious society” is his guiding principle; it cannot be achieved while a policy so profoundly perverts family life.

 

And all countries need to raise the value of girls. They should encourage female education; abolish laws and customs that prevent daughters inheriting property; make examples of hospitals and clinics with impossible sex ratios; get women engaged in public life—using everything from television newsreaders to women traffic police. Mao Zedong said “women hold up half the sky.” The world needs to do more to prevent a gendercide that will have the sky crashing down.

 —

 

A guerra contra meninas: generocídio | The Economist
www.economist.com/node/15606229

A guerra contra meninas
Generocídio
Assassinado abortada ou negligenciadas, pelo menos 100 milhões de meninas desapareceram, eo número está a aumentar
4 março, 2010 | a partir da edição impressa

Imagine que você é metade de um jovem casal espera seu primeiro filho em um rápido crescimento país pobre. Você faz parte da nova classe média; sua renda está aumentando, você quer uma família pequena. Mas os costumes tradicionais prevaleçam em torno de você, o mais importante na preferência por filhos homens sobre as filhas.

Talvez o trabalho físico duro ainda é necessária para a família para fazer a sua vida. Talvez apenas os filhos podem herdar a terra. Talvez uma filha é considerado como se juntar a outra família sobre o casamento e você quer alguém para cuidar de você quando você está velho. Talvez ela precisa de um dote.

Agora imagine que você tenha tido uma ecografia, que custa US $ 12, mas você pode pagar por isso. A digitalização diz que o feto é uma menina. Você se prefere um menino, o resto de sua família clama por um. Você nunca sonharia de matar uma filha, como fazem nas aldeias. Mas um aborto parece diferente. O que você faz?

Para milhões de casais, a resposta é: abortar a filha, para tentar um filho. Na China e no norte da Índia mais de 120 meninos nascem para cada 100 meninas. Natureza dita que os homens um pouco mais do que as fêmeas nascem para compensar a susceptibilidade dos meninos maior para a doença infantil. Mas nada nesta escala.

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• Coréia do Sul
• Sul da Ásia
• Índia
• Ásia
• China

Para aqueles que se opõem ao aborto, isto é assassinato em massa. Para aqueles que, como este jornal, que pensam que o aborto deve ser “seguro, legal e raro” (para usar a frase de Bill Clinton), muito depende das circunstâncias, mas a conseqüência cumulativa para as sociedades de tais ações individuais é catastrófico. Só a China está para ter tantos homens solteiros de jovens “ramos nus”, como são conhecidos, como toda a população de homens jovens na América. Em todo o país sem raízes jovens do sexo masculino significar problemas; nas sociedades asiáticas, onde o casamento e as crianças são as rotas reconhecidas na sociedade, os homens solteiros são quase como bandidos. Os índices de criminalidade, tráfico de noiva, a violência sexual, até mesmo as taxas de suicídio feminino estão todos subindo e vai subir à medida que as gerações torto chegar a sua maturidade (ver artigo).

Não é exagero chamar isso de generocídio. As mulheres estão perdendo aos milhões, abortado, morto, negligenciado até a morte. Em 1990, um economista indiano, Amartya Sen, colocam o número em 100 m; o número de vítimas é maior agora. A migalha de conforto é que os países podem atenuar a dor, e que um, Coreia do Sul, mostrou o pior pode ser evitado. Outros precisam de aprender com ele se quiserem parar a carnificina.


A escassez e a morte de irmãzinhas


A maioria das pessoas conhecer a China e norte da Índia têm um número anormalmente grande de meninos. Mas poucos apreciam o quão ruim é o problema, ou que está subindo. Na China, o desequilíbrio entre os sexos foi de 108 meninos para 100 meninas para a geração nascida na década de 1980, para a geração do início dos anos 2000, ela foi de 124 a 100. Em algumas províncias chinesas a proporção é de um 130 sem precedentes para 100. A destruição é pior na China, mas se espalhou muito além.

 

Outros países asiáticos, incluindo Taiwan e Cingapura, o ex-estados comunistas nos Balcãs Ocidentais e do Cáucaso, e até mesmo segmentos da população da América (chinês e japonês-americanos, por exemplo): todos estes têm distorcido relações sexuais. Generocídio existe em quase todos os continentes. Ela afeta ricos e pobres; educados e analfabetos; hindus, muçulmanos, confucionistas e cristãos.


Riqueza não pará-lo. Taiwan e Cingapura têm economias abertas e ricos. Na China e na Índia as áreas com os piores índices de sexo são mais ricos, mais instruídos queridos. E a política chinesa do filho único só pode ser parte do problema, dado que muitos outros países são afetados.

Na verdade, a destruição dos bebés é um produto de três forças: a preferência antiga para filhos; um desejo moderno para famílias menores, e ultra-sonografia e outras tecnologias que identificam o sexo de um feto. Nas sociedades em que quatro ou seis crianças eram comuns, um menino quase certamente vir, eventualmente, preferência filho não precisa existir em detrimento das filhas. Mas agora os casais querem dois filhos-ou, como na China, são permitidos apenas um eles vão sacrificar filhas nascituros de sua busca por um filho. É por isso que relações sexuais são mais distorcidas nos modernos e partes abertas da China e da Índia. É também por isso que relações são mais distorcida após o primeiro filho: os pais podem aceitar uma filha redonda primeira vez, mas fará de tudo para garantir a sua próxima e provavelmente última criança-é um menino. A relação de menino-menina está acima de 200 por um terceiro filho, em alguns lugares.

Como parar de metade do céu desabar


Meninas são assim vítimas de uma combinação maligna de preconceito antigo e preferências modernas para famílias pequenas. Apenas um país conseguiu mudar esse padrão. Na década de 1990 a Coréia do Sul teve uma relação sexual quase tão desequilibrada quanto da China. Agora, ele está caminhando para a normalidade. Alcançou isto não deliberadamente, mas porque a cultura mudou. Educação feminina, anti-discriminação ternos e igual dos direitos de decisões preferência filho parece antiquado e desnecessário. As forças da primeira modernidade exacerbada prejuízo, então sobrecarregado ele.

Mas isso aconteceu quando a Coréia do Sul era rico. Se a China ou a Índia, com rendimentos um quarto e um décimo da Coréia níveis, esperar até que eles são tão rico, de muitas gerações vai passar. Para acelerar a mudança, eles precisam tomar medidas que estão em seus próprios interesses de qualquer maneira. A maioria, obviamente, a China deve desfazer-se da política do filho único. Os líderes do país vai resistir a este, porque temem o crescimento da população, mas também descartar as preocupações do Ocidente sobre direitos humanos. Mas o limite de um filho não é mais necessário para reduzir a fertilidade (se ele nunca foi: em outros países do leste asiático reduziu a pressão sobre a população, tanto quanto China). E maciçamente distorce relação do país sexo, com resultados devastadores. Presidente Hu Jintao diz que a criação de uma “sociedade harmoniosa” é o seu princípio orientador, não pode ser alcançada, enquanto a política perverte tão profundamente a vida familiar.

E todos os países precisam aumentar o valor das meninas. Eles devem incentivar a educação feminina; abolir leis e costumes que impedem filhas herdando propriedade, fazer exemplos de hospitais e clínicas com relações sexuais impossíveis; obter as mulheres engajados na vida pública, usando de tudo, desde leitores de notícias de televisão para a polícia de trânsito mulheres. Mao Zedong disse que “as mulheres sustentam metade do céu.” O mundo precisa de fazer mais para evitar um generocídio que terá o céu desabar.

 

 

The world at seven billion

 

Este artigo apresenta um resumo do desenvolvimento histórico da pregação politico ideológica de controle populacional sobre os países pobres. Exatamente como vive esta influencia o Brasil, na aprovação de leis inconstitucionais, a contar do governo Lula de 1º/jan/     2003 a 31/dez/2010, e seu reflexo e continuidade no governo Dilma e seus ministros, incluindo as decisões contra-legis do Supremo Tribunal Federal e julgamento eivado de incompetência do relator Marco Aurelio de Mello, no caso da ADPF/54, onde o ministro dispõe no relatório a favor da morte de pessoas deficientes, os anencefalos, relativizando o direito ‘a vida e desconsidera a Constituiçao Federal, e tambem os Códigos Civil e Penal brasileiros.  As iniciativas das potencias econômicas traduziram-se em grandes somas em dinheiro e financiamentos de governos, ex-colonias dos EUA e de aliados na Europa – África e Índia, Japão, Coréias e China -, para aplicação da esterilização forçada de homens e mulheres pobres, construção de clínicas de abortamento, emprego de contraceptivos e instalação de industrias. O financiamento também envolve a adoção de leis para a liberação do aborto ate os 9 meses de gestação e a educação da população, alem da entrada e fixação nos países de fundações e organizações com aparentes fins filantrópicos – mas cujos objetivos se concluem na redução de populações. Para tanto, é preciso que a morte provocada de uma pessoa, o aborto, seja visto pelas mulheres como ‘direito’ e ‘saude’. O controle populacional teve suas consequencias extremas, dividiu mais as classes pobres, corrompeu governos, e tambem a ciência e a mídia. Hoje, países como a índia e a China, por causa do aborto, tém aumento da mortalidade de mulheres e a crise demográfica: a população é constituida na sua maioria por homens.          

————-

 

27 October 2011 Last updated at 23:08 GMT

http://www.bbc.co.uk/

* Population control

 

As the world population reaches seven billion people, the BBC’s Mike Gallagher asks whether efforts to control population have been, as some critics claim, a form of authoritarian control over the world’s poorest citizens.

 

The temperature is some 30C. The humidity stifling, the noise unbearable. In a yard between two enormous tea-drying sheds, a number of dark-skinned women patiently sit, each accompanied by an unwieldy looking cloth sack. They are clad in colourful saris, but look tired and shabby. This is hardly surprising – they have spent most of the day in nearby plantation fields, picking tea that will net them around two cents a kilo – barely enough to feed their large families.

 

Vivek Baid thinks he knows how to help them. He runs the Mission for Population Control, a project in eastern India which aims to bring down high birth rates by encouraging local women to get sterilised after their second child.

 

As the world reaches an estimated seven billion people, people like Vivek say efforts to bring down the world’s population must continue if life on Earth is to be sustainable, and if poverty and even mass starvation are to be avoided.

 

There is no doubting their good intentions. Vivek, for instance, has spent his own money on the project, and is passionate about creating a brighter future for India.

 

But critics allege that campaigners like Vivek – a successful and wealthy male businessman – have tended to live very differentlives from those they seek to help, who are mainly poor women.

 

These critics argue that rich people have imposed population control on the poor for decades. And, they say, such coercive attempts to control the world’s population often backfired and were sometimes harmful.

 

Population scare

 

Most historians of modern population control trace its roots back to the Reverend Thomas Malthus, an English clergyman born in the 18th Century who believed that humans would always reproduce faster than Earth’s capacity to feed them.

 

Giving succour to the resulting desperate masses would only imperil everyone else, he said. So the brutal reality was that it was better to let them starve.

 

Continue reading the main story

‘Plenty is changed into scarcity’

 

From Thomas Malthus’ Essay on Population, 1803 edition:

 

A man who is born into a world already possessed – if he cannot get subsistence from his parents on whom he has a just demand, and if the society do not want his labour, has no claim of right to the smallest portion of food.

 

At nature’s mighty feast there is no vacant cover for him. She tells him to be gone, and will quickly execute her own orders, if he does not work upon the compassion of some of her guests. If these guests get up and make room for him, other intruders immediately appear demanding the same favour. The plenty that before reigned is changed into scarcity; and the happiness of the guests is destroyed by the spectacle of misery and dependence in every part of the hall.

 

Rapid agricultural advances in the 19th Century proved his main premise wrong, because food production generally more than kept pace with the growing population.

 

But the idea that the rich are threatened by the desperately poor has cast a long shadow into the 20th Century.

From the 1960s, the World Bank, the UN and a host of independent American philanthropic foundations, such as the Ford and Rockefeller foundations, began to focus on what they saw as the problem of burgeoning Third World numbers.

 

The believed that overpopulation was the primary cause of environmental degradation, economic underdevelopment and political instability.

 

Massive populations in the Third World were seen as presenting a threat to Western capitalism and access to resources, says Professor Betsy Hartmann of Hampshire College, Massachusetts, in the US.

 

“The view of the south is very much put in this Malthusian framework. It becomes just this powerful ideology,” she says.

In 1966, President Lyndon Johnson warned that the US might be overwhelmed by desperate masses, and he made US foreign aid dependent on countries adopting family planning programmes.

Other wealthy countries such as Japan, Sweden and the UK also began to devote large amounts of money to reducing Third World birth rates.

 

‘Unmet need’

 

What virtually everyone agreed was that there was a massive demand for birth control among the world’s poorest people, and that if they could get their hands on reliable contraceptives, runaway population growth might be stopped.

 

But with the benefit of hindsight, some argue that this so-called unmet need theory put disproportionate emphasis on birth control and ignored other serious needs.

 

“It was a top-down solution,” says Mohan Rao, a doctor and public health expert at Delhi’s Jawaharlal Nehru University.

 

“There was an unmet need for contraceptive services, of course. But there was also an unmet need for health services and all kinds of other services which did not get attention. The focus became contraception.”

 

Had the demographic experts worked at the grass-roots instead of imposing solutions from above, suggests Adrienne Germain, formerly of the Ford Foundation and then the International Women’s Health Coalition, they might have achieved a better picture of the dilemmas facing women in poor, rural communities.

 

“Not to have a full set of health services meant women were either unable to use family planning, or unwilling to – because they could still expect half their kids to die by the age of five,” she says.

 

Us and them

India’s sterilisation ‘madness’

 

Indira Gandhi and her son Sanjay (above) presided over a mass sterilisation campaign. From the mid-1970s, Indian officials were set sterilisation quotas, and sought to ingratiate themselves with superiors by exceeding them. Stories abounded of men being accosted in the street and taken away for the operation. The head of the World Bank, Robert McNamara, congratulated the Indian government on “moving effectively” to deal with high birth rates. Funding was increased, and the sterilising went on.

 

In Delhi, some 700,000 slum dwellers were forcibly evicted, and given replacement housing plots far from the city centre, frequently on condition that they were either sterilisedor produced someone else for the operation. In poorer agricultural areas, whole villages were rounded up for sterilisation. When residents of one village protested, an official is said to have threatened air strikes in retaliation.

 

“There was a certain madness,” recalls Nina Puri of the Family Planning Association of India. “All rationality was lost.”

 

In 1968, the American biologist Paul Ehrlich caused a stir with his bestselling book, The Population Bomb, which suggested that it was already too late to save some countries from the dire effects of overpopulation, which would result in ecological disaster and the deaths of hundreds of millions of people in the 1970s.

 

Instead, governments should concentrate on drastically reducing population growth. He said financial assistance should be given only to those nations with a realistic chance of bringing birth rates down. Compulsory measures were not to be ruled out.

 

Western experts and local elites in the developing world soon imposed targets for reductions in family size, and used military analogies to drive home the urgency, says Matthew Connelly, a historian of population control at Columbia University in New York.

 

“They spoke of a war on population growth, fought with contraceptive weapons,” he says. “The war would entail sacrifices, and collateral damage.”

 

Such language betrayed a lack of empathy with their subjects, says Ms Germain: “People didn’t talk about people. They talked of acceptors and users of family planning.”

 

Emergency measures

 

Critics of population control had their say at the first ever UN population conference in 1974.

 

Karan Singh, India’s health minister at the time, declared that “development is the best contraceptive“.

 

But just a year later, Mr Singh’s government presided over one of the most notorious episodes in the history of population control.

In June 1975, the Indian premier, Indira Gandhi, declared a state of emergency after accusations of corruption threatened her government. Her son Sanjay used the measure to introduce radical population control measures targeted at the poor.

 

THE INDIAN EMERGENCY LASTED LESS THAN TWO YEARS, BUT IN 1975 ALONE, SOME EIGHT MILLION INDIANS – MAINLY POOR MEN – WERE STERILISED.

 

Yet, for all the OFFICIAL PROGRAMMES and COERCION, many POOR WOMEN kept on having babies.

 

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The BBC’s Fergus Walsh finds out whether the numbers will rise or fall in the future

 

And where they did not, it arguably had less to do with coercive population control than with development, just as Karan Singh had argued in 1974, says historian Matt Connelly.

 

For example, in India, a disparity in birth rates could already be observed between the impoverished northern states and more developed southern regions like Kerala, where women were more likely to be literate and educated, and their offspring more likely to be healthy.

 

Women there realised that they could have fewer births and still expect to see their children survive into adulthood.

 

Total control

By NOW, this phenomenon could be observed in another country too – one that would nevertheless go on to IMPOSE THE MOST DRACONIAN POPULATION CONTROL OF ALL.

 

CHINA: ‘WE WILL NOT ALLOW YOUR BABY TO LIVE’

 

STEVEN MOSHER WAS A STANFORD UNIVERSITY ANTHROPOLOGIST WORKING IN RURAL CHINA WHO WITNESSED SOME OF THE EARLY, DISTURBING MOMENTS OF BEIJING’S ONE CHILD POLICY.

 

“I remember very well the evening of 8 March, 1980. The local Communist Party official in charge of my village came over waving a government document. He said: ‘The Party has DECIDED TO IMPOSE A CAP OF 1% ON POPULATION growth this year.’ He said: ‘We’re going to decide who’s going to be allowed to continue their pregnancy and who’s going to BE FORCED TO TERMINATE THEIR PREGNANCY.’ AND THAT’S EXACTLY WHAT THEY DID.”

 

“These were WOMEN IN THE LATE SECOND AND THIRD TRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY. THERE WERE SEVERAL WOMEN JUST DAYS AWAY FROM GIVING BIRTH. And in my hearing, a party official said: ‘Do not think that you can simply wait until you go into labour and give birth, because we will not allow your baby to live. You will go home alone’.”

 

The One Child Policy is credited with preventing some 400 million births in China, and remains in place to this day. IN 1983 ALONE, MORE THAN 16 MILLION WOMEN AND FOUR MILLION MEN WERE STERILISED, AND 14 MILLION WOMEN RECEIVED ABORTIONS.

 

Assessed by numbers alone, it is said to be by far the most successful population control initiative. Yet it remains deeply controversial, NOT ONLY BECAUSE OF THE HUMAN SUFFERING IT HAS CAUSED.

 

A FEW YEARS AFTER ITS INCEPTION, PARENTS THE POLICY WAS RELAXED SLIGHTLY TO ALLOW RURAL COUPLES TWO CHILDREN IF THEIR FIRST WAS NOT A BOY. BOY CHILDREN ARE PRIZED, ESPECIALLY IN THE COUNTRYSIDE WHERE THEY PROVIDE LABOUR AND CARE FOR IN OLD AGE.

 

BUT MODERN TECHNOLOGY ALLOWS PARENTS TO DISCOVER THE SEX OF THE FOETUS, AND MANY CHOOSE TO ABORT IF THEY ARE CARRYING A GIRL. IN SOME REGIONS, THERE IS NOW A SERIOUS IMBALANCE BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN.

 

Moreover, since Chinese fertility was already in decline at the time the policy was implemented, some argue that it bears less responsibility for China’s falling birth rate than its supporters claim.

 

“I don’t think they needed to bring it down further,” says Indian demographer AR Nanda. “It would have happened at its own slow pace in another 10 years.”

Backlash

 

IN THE EARLY 1980S, OBJECTIONS TO THE POPULATION CONTROL MOVEMENT BEGAN TO GROW, ESPECIALLY IN THE UNITED STATES.

 

 

In Washington, the new Reagan administration removed financial support for any programmes that involved abortion or sterilisation.

 

 

 “Start Quote”

“if you give women the tools they need – education, employment, contraception, safe abortion – then they will make the choices that benefit society”

 

End Quote Adrienne Germain

 

 

The broad alliance to stem birth rates was beginning to dissolve and the debate become more polarised along political lines.

 

WHILE SOME ON THE POLITICAL RIGHT HAD MORAL OBJECTIONS TO POPULATION CONTROL, SOME ON THE LEFT SAW IT AS NEO-COLONIALISM.

 

Faith groups condemned it as a Western attack on religious values, but women’s groups feared changes would mean poor women would be even less well-served.

 

BY THE TIME OF A MAJOR UN CONFERENCE ON POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN CAIRO IN 1994, WOMEN’S GROUPS WERE READY TO STRIKE A BLOW FOR WOMEN’S RIGHTS, AND THEY WON.

 

The conference adopted a 20-year plan of action, known as the Cairo consensus, which called on countries to recognise that ordinary women’s needs – rather than demographers’ plans – should be at the heart of population strategies.

 

After Cairo    

 

Today’s record-breaking global population hides a marked long-term trend towards lower birth rates, as urbanisation, better health care, education and access to family planning all affect women’s choices.

 

With the exception of sub-Saharan Africa and some of the poorest parts of India, we are now having fewer children than we once did – in some cases, failing even to replace ourselves in the next generation. And although total numbers are set to rise still further, the peak is now in sight.

 

CHINA PROMOTED BIRTH CONTROL BEFORE IMPLEMENTING ITS ONE-CHILD POLICY

 

Assuming that this trend continues, total numbers will one day level off, and even fall. As a result, some believe the sense of urgency that once surrounded population control has subsided.

 

The term population control itself has fallen out of fashion, as it was deemed to have authoritarian connotations. Post-Cairo, the talk is of women’s rights and reproductive rights, meaning the right to a free choice over whether or not to have children.

ACCORDING TO ADRIENNE GERMAIN, THAT IS THE MAIN LESSON WE SHOULD LEARN FROM THE PAST 50 YEARS.

 

“I have a profound conviction that if you give women the tools they need – education, employment, contraception, safe abortion – then they will make the choices that benefit society,” she says.


“If you don’t, then you’ll just be in an endless cycle of trying to exert control over fertility – to bring it up, to bring it down, to keep it stable. And it never comes out well. Never.”

 

NEVERTHELESS, THERE REMAIN TO THIS DAY SCHEMES TO STERILISE THE LESS WELL-OFF, OFTEN IN RETURN FOR FINANCIAL INCENTIVES. IN EFFECT, SAY CRITICS, THIS AMOUNTS TO COERCION, SINCE THE VERY POOR FIND IT HARD TO REJECT CASH.

 

“The people proposing this argue ‘Don’t worry, everything’ s fine now we have voluntary programmes on the Cairo model’,” says Betsy Hartmann.

 

“But what they don’t understand is the profound difference in power between rich and poor. The people who provide many services in poor areas are already prejudiced against the people they serve.”

 

 Work in progress

For Mohan Rao, it is an example of how even the Cairo consensus fails to take account of the developing world.

 

“Cairo had some good things,” he says. “However Cairo was driven largely by First World feminist agendas. Reproductive rights are all very well, but [there needs to be] a whole lot of other kinds of enabling rights before women can access reproductive rights. You need rights to food, employment, water, justice and fair wages. Without all these YOU CANNOT HAVE reproductive RIGHTS.”

 

Perhaps, then, the humanitarian ideals of Cairo are still a work in progress.

 

Meanwhile, Paul Ehrlich has also amended his view of the issue.

 

If he were to write his book today, “I wouldn’t focus on the poverty-stricken masses”, he told the BBC.

 

“I would focus on there being too many rich people. It’s crystal clear that we can’t support seven billion people in the style of the wealthier Americans.”

 

Mike Gallager is the producer of the radio programme Controlling People on BBC World Service

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-15449959

—-

Experimentação médica em humanos nos Estados Unidos: A história chocante da verdade da medicina moderna e psiquiatria (1833-1965 a parte de 1965-2005). Os riscos e perigos ‘a saúde de quem utiliza drogas psiquiatricas. Vale lembrar que as mulheres que abortam comumente tém, entre as sequelas fisico-psiquicas e o cancer, doenças psiquiatricas alem da perda da fecundidade.

Experimentação médica em humanos nos Estados Unidos: A história chocante da verdade da medicina moderna e psiquiatria (de 1833-1965 a parte de 1965-2005). Os riscos e perigos ‘a saúde de quem utiliza drogas psiquiatricas. Vale lembrar que as mulheres que abortam comumente tém, entre as sequelas fisico-psiquicas e o cancer, doenças psiquiatricas alem da perda da fecundidade.

Human medical experimentation in the United States: The shocking true history of modern medicine and psychiatry (1833-1965)

http://www.naturalnews.com/019189.html

Human medical experimentation in the United States: The shocking true history of modern medicine and psychiatry (1965-2005)

http://www.naturalnews.com/019187.html

Monday, March 06, 2006 by: Dani Veracity

http://www.naturalnews.com/019187.html

Introduction by the Health Ranger: The United States claims to be the world leader in medicine. But there’s a dark side to western medicine that few want to acknowledge: The horrifying medical experiments performed on impoverished people and their children all in the name of scientific progress. Many of these medical experiments were conducted on people without their knowledge, and most were conducted as part of an effort to seek profits from newly approved drugs or medical technologies.

This is part two of a two-part series on human medical experimentation. Click here to read part one and the introduction.

Learn more: http://www.naturalnews.com/019189.html#ixzz3Ho2D5cgV

Human medical experimentation in the United States: The shocking true history of modern medicine and psychiatry (1833-1965)

http://www.naturalnews.com/019189.html

AND

Human medical experimentation in the United States: The shocking true history of modern medicine and psychiatry (1965-2005)

http://www.naturalnews.com/019187.html

Monday, March 06, 2006 by: Dani Veracity

Today, the medical experiments  continue on the U.S. population  and its children. From the mass drugging of children  diagnosed with fictitious behavioral disorders invented by psychiatry  to the FDA’s approval of mass-marketed drugs  that have undergone no legitimate clinical trials, our population is right now being subjected to medical experiments  on a staggering scale. Today, nearly 50% of Americans are on a least one prescription drug , and nearly 20% of schoolchildren are on mind-altering amphetamines like Ritalin or antidepressants like Prozac. This mass medication  of our nation is, in every way, a grand medical experiment taking place right now.

But to truly understand how this mass experimentation on modern Americans came into being, you have to take a close look at the horrifying history  of conventional medicine’s exploitation of people for cruel medical experiments.

WARNING: What you are about to read is truly shocking. You have never been told this information  by the American Medical Association, nor drug companies , nor the evening news. You were never taught the truth about conventional medicine  in public school, or even at any university. This is the dark secret of the U.S. system of medicine, and once you read the true accounts reported here, you may never trust drug companies again. These images are deeply disturbing. We print them here not as a form of entertainment, but as a stern warning against what might happen to us and our children if we do not rein in the horrifying, inhumane actions of Big Pharma and modern-day psychiatry.

Now, I introduce this shocking timeline, researched and authored by Dani Veracity, one of our many talented staff writers here at Truth Publishing.

Read at your own risk . – The Health Ranger

The true U.S. history of human medical experimentation

Human experimentation — that is, subjecting live human beings to science  experiments that are sometimes cruel, sometimes painful, sometimes deadly and always a risk — is a major part of U.S. history that you won’t find in most history or science books. The United States  is undoubtedly responsible for some of the most amazing scientific breakthroughs. These advancements, especially in the field of medicine, have changed the lives of billions of people around the world — sometimes for the better, as in the case of finding a cure  for malaria and other epidemic diseases, and sometimes for the worse (consider modern “psychiatry” and the drugging of schoolchildren)

.

However, these breakthroughs come with a hefty price tag: The human beings used in the experiments that made these advancements possible. Over the last two centuries, some of these test subjects have been compensated for the damage done to their emotional and physical health , but most have not. Many have lost their lives because of the experiments they often unwillingly and sometimes even unwittingly participated in, and they of course can never be compensated for losing their most precious possession of all: Their health.

As you read through these science experiments, you’ll learn the stories of newborns  injected with radioactive substances, mentally ill people placed in giant refrigerators, military  personnel exposed to chemical weapons by the very government  they served and mentally challenged children being purposely infected with hepatitis . These stories are facts, not fiction: Each account, no matter how horrifying, is backed up with a link or citation to a reputable source.

These stories must be heard because human experimentation  is still going on today. The reasons behind the experiments may be different, but the usual human guinea pigs  are still the same — members of minority groups, the poor and the disadvantaged. These are the lives that were put on the line in the name of “scientific” medicine.

(1833)

Dr. William Beaumont, an army surgeon physician, pioneers gastric medicine with his study of a patient with a permanently open gunshot wound to the abdomen and writes a human medical experimentation  code that asserts the importance of experimental treatments, but also lists requirements stipulating that human subjects must give voluntary, informed consent and be able to end the experiment when they want. Beaumont’s Code lists verbal, rather than just written, consent as permissible (Berdon ).

(1845)

(1845 – 1849) J. Marion Sims, later hailed as the “father of gynecology,” performs medical experiments on enslaved African women without anesthesia . These women would usually die of infection  soon after surgery. Based on his belief that the movement of newborns’ skull bones  during protracted births causes  trismus, he also uses a shoemaker’s awl, a pointed tool shoemakers use to make holes in leather, to practice moving the skull bones of babies  born to enslaved mothers (Brinker ).

(1895)

New York pediatrician Henry Heiman infects a 4-year-old boy whom he calls “an idiot with chronic epilepsy” with gonorrhea as part of a medical experiment (“Human Experimentation: Before the Nazi Era and After” ).

(1896)

Dr. Arthur Wentworth turns 29 children at Boston’s Children’s Hospital into human guinea pigs when he performs spinal taps on them, just to test whether the procedure is harmful (Sharav ).

(1900)

U.S Army doctors working in the Philippines  infect five Filipino prisoners  with plague and withhold proper nutrition  to create Beriberi in 29 prisoners; four test subjects die (Merritte, et al. ; Cockburn and St. Clair, eds. ).

Under commission from the U.S. surgeon general, Dr. Walter Reed goes to Cuba and uses 22 Spanish immigrant workers to prove that yellow fever  is contracted through mosquito bites. Doing so, he introduces the practice of using healthy  test subjects, and also the concept of a written contract to confirm informed consent of these subjects. While doing this study, Dr. Reed clearly tells the subjects that, though he will do everything he can to help them, they may die as a result of the experiment. He pays them $100 in gold for their participation, plus $100 extra if they contract yellow fever (Berdon , Sharav ).

(1906)

Harvard professor Dr. Richard Strong infects prisoners in the Philippines with cholera to study the disease ; 13 of them die. He compensates survivors with cigars and cigarettes. During the Nuremberg Trials, Nazi doctors  cite this study to justify their own medical experiments (Greger , Sharav ).

(1911)

Dr. Hideyo Noguchi of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research publishes data on injecting an inactive syphilis preparation into the skin of 146 hospital patients  and normal children in an attempt to develop a skin  test for syphilis. Later, in 1913, several of these children’s parents  sue Dr. Noguchi for allegedly infecting their children with syphilis (“Reviews and Notes: History of Medicine: Subjected to Science: Human Experimentation in America before the Second World War” ).

(1913)

Medical experimenters “test” 15 children at the children’s home  St. Vincent’s House in Philadelphia with tuberculin, resulting in permanent blindness in some of the children. Though the Pennsylvania House of Representatives records the incident, the researchers are not punished for the experiments (“Human Experimentation: Before the Nazi Era and After” ).

(1915)

Dr. Joseph Goldberger, under order of the U.S. Public Health Office, produces Pellagra, a debilitating disease that affects the central nervous system , in 12 Mississippi inmates to try to find a cure for the disease. One test subject later says that he had been through “a thousand hells.” In 1935, after millions die from the disease, the director of the U.S Public Health Office would finally admit that officials had known that it was caused by a niacin deficiency for some time, but did nothing about it because it mostly affected poor African-Americans. During the Nuremberg Trials, Nazi  doctors used this study to try to justify their medical experiments on concentration camp inmates (Greger ; Cockburn and St. Clair, eds. ).

 (1918)

In response to the Germans’ use of chemical weapons  during World War I, President Wilson creates the Chemical Warfare Service (CWS) as a branch of the U.S. Army. Twenty-four years later, in 1942, the CWS would begin performing mustard  gas and lewisite experiments on over 4,000 members of the armed forces (Global Security , Goliszek).

(1919)

(1919 – 1922) Researchers perform testicular transplant experiments on inmates at San Quentin State Prison in California , inserting the testicles of recently executed inmates and goats into the abdomens and scrotums of living prisoners (Greger ).

(1931)

Cornelius Rhoads, a pathologist from the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, purposely infects human test subjects in Puerto Rico with cancer cells ; 13 of them die. Though a Puerto Rican doctor  later discovers that Rhoads purposely covered up some of details of his experiment and Rhoads himself gives a written testimony stating he believes that all Puerto Ricans should be killed, he later goes on to establish the U.S. Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland , Utah and Panama, and is named to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, where he begins a series of radiation  exposure experiments on American soldiers and civilian hospital patients (Sharav ; Cockburn and St. Clair, eds. ).

(1931 – 1933) Mental patients  at Elgin State Hospital in Illinois  are injected with radium-266 as an experimental therapy  for mental illness (Goliszek).

(1932)

(1932-1972) The U.S. Public Health Service in Tuskegee, Ala. diagnoses 400 poor, black sharecroppers with syphilis but never tells them of their illness  nor treats them; instead researchers use the men as human guinea pigs to follow the symptoms  and progression of the disease. They all eventually die from syphilis and their families are never told that they could have been treated (Goliszek, University of Virginia Health System Health Sciences Library ).

(1937)

Scientists at Cornell University Medical School publish an angina drug study that uses both placebo  and blind assessment techniques on human test subjects. They discover that the subjects given the placebo experienced more of an improvement in symptoms than those who were given the actual drug. This is first account of the placebo effect  published in the United States (“Placebo Effect” ).

(1939)

In order to test his theory on the roots of stuttering, prominent speech pathologist Dr. Wendell Johnson performs his famous “Monster Experiment” on 22 children at the Iowa  Soldiers’ Orphans’ Home in Davenport. Dr. Johnson and his graduate students  put the children under intense psychological pressure, causing them to switch from speaking normally to stuttering heavily. At the time, some of the students reportedly warn Dr. Johnson that, “in the aftermath of World War II, observers might draw comparisons to Nazi experiments on human subjects, which could destroy his career” (Alliance for Human Research Protection ).

 (1941)

Dr. William C. Black infects a 12-month-old baby with herpes as part of a medical experiment. At the time, the editor of the Journal of Experimental Medicine, Francis Payton Rous, calls it “an abuse of power, an infringement of the rights of an individual, and not excusable because the illness which followed had implications for science” (Sharav ).

An article in a 1941 issue of Archives of Pediatrics describes medical studies  of the severe gum disease Vincent’s angina in which doctors transmit the disease from sick children to healthy children with oral swabs (Goliszek).

Drs. Francis and Salk and other researchers at the University of Michigan spray large amounts of wild influenza  virus directly into the nasal passages of “volunteers” from mental institutions in Michigan. The test subjects develop influenza within a very short period of time (Meiklejohn ).

Researchers give 800 poverty-stricken pregnant women  at a Vanderbilt University prenatal clinic “cocktails” including radioactive iron  in order to determine the iron requirements of pregnant women (Pacchioli ).

 (1942)

The United States creates Fort Detrick, a 92-acre facility, employing nearly 500 scientists  working to create biological weapons and develop defensive measures against them. Fort Detrick’s main objectives include investigating whether diseases are transmitted by inhalation, digestion or through skin absorption ; of course, these biological warfare  experiments heavily relied on the use of human subjects (Goliszek).

U.S. Army and Navy doctors infect 400 prison inmates in Chicago with malaria to study the disease and hopefully develop a treatment  for it. The prisoners are told that they are helping the war effort, but not that they are going to be infected with malaria. During Nuremberg Trials, Nazi doctors later cite this American study to defend their own medical experiments in concentration camps like Auschwitz (Cockburn and St. Clair, eds. ).

The Chemical Warfare Service begins mustard gas and lewisite experiments on 4,000 members of the U.S. military. Some test subjects don’t realize they are volunteering  for chemical exposure experiments, like 17-year-old Nathan Schnurman, who in 1944 thinks he is only volunteering to test “U.S. Navy summer clothes” (Goliszek).

In an experiment sponsored by the U.S. Navy, Harvard biochemist Edward Cohn injects 64 inmates of Massachusetts state prisons with cow’s blood (Sharav ).

Merck Pharmaceuticals President George Merck  is named director of the War Research Service (WRS), an agency designed to oversee the establishment of a biological warfare program (Goliszek).

 

(1943)

In order to “study the effect of frigid temperature on mental disorders ,” researchers at University of Cincinnati Hospital keep 16 mentally disabled patients in refrigerated cabinets for 120 hours at 30 degrees Fahrenheit (Sharav ).

(1944)

As part of the Manhattan Project that would eventually create the atomic bomb, researchers inject 4.7 micrograms of plutonium into soldiers at the Oak Ridge facility, 20 miles west of Knoxville, Tenn. (“Manhattan Project: Oak Ridge” ).

 

Captain A. W. Frisch, an experienced microbiologist, begins experiments on four volunteers from the state prison at Dearborn, Mich., inoculating prisoners with hepatitis-infected specimens obtained in North Africa . One prisoner dies; two others develop hepatitis but live; the fourth develops symptoms but does not actually develop the disease (Meiklejohn ).

Laboratory workers at the University of Minnesota and University of Chicago inject human test subjects with phosphorus-32 to learn the metabolism of hemoglobin (Goliszek).

(1944 – 1946) In order to quickly develop a cure for malaria — a disease hindering Allied success in World War II — University of Chicago Medical School professor Dr. Alf Alving infects psychotic patients at Illinois State Hospital with the disease through blood  transfusions and then experiments malaria cures on them (Sharav ).

A captain in the medical corps addresses an April 1944 memo to Col. Stanford Warren, head of the Manhattan Project’s Medical Section, expressing his concerns about atom bomb component fluoride’s central nervous system (CNS) effects and asking for animal research  to be done to determine the extent of these effects: “Clinical evidence suggests that uranium hexafluoride may have a rather marked central nervous system effect … It seems most likely that the F

component rather than the T

is the causative factor … Since work with these compounds is essential, it will be necessary to know in advance what mental effects may occur after exposure .” The following year, the Manhattan Project would begin human-based studies on fluoride’s effects (Griffiths and Bryson ).

The Manhattan Project medical team, led by the now infamous University of Rochester radiologist Col. Safford Warren, injects plutonium into patients at the University’s teaching hospital , Strong Memorial (Burton Report ).

(1945)

Continuing the Manhattan Project, researchers inject plutonium into three patients at the University of Chicago’s Billings Hospital (Sharav ).

The U.S. State Department, Army intelligence  and the CIA begin Operation Paperclip, offering Nazi scientists immunity  and secret identities in exchange for work on top-secret government projects on aerodynamics and chemical warfare medicine in the United States (“Project Paperclip” ).

Researchers infect 800 prisoners in Atlanta with malaria to study the disease (Sharav ).

(1945 – 1955) In Newburgh, N.Y., researchers linked to the Manhattan Project begin the most extensive American study ever done on the health effects of fluoridating public drinking water (Griffiths and Bryson ).

(1946)

Gen. Douglas MacArthur strikes a secret deal with Japanese physician Dr. Shiro Ishii to turn over 10,000 pages of information gathered from human experimentation in exchange for granting Ishii immunity from prosecution for the horrific experiments he performed on Chinese , Russian and American war prisoners, including performing vivisections on live human beings (Goliszek, Sharav ).

Male and female test subjects at Chicago’s Argonne National Laboratories are given intravenous injections of arsenic-76 so that researchers can study how the human body  absorbs, distributes and excretes arsenic  (Goliszek).

Continuing the Newburg study of 1945, the Manhattan Project commissions the University of Rochester to study fluoride’s effects on animals  and humans in a project  codenamed “Program F.” With the help of the New York  State Health Department, Program F researchers secretly collect and analyze blood and tissue samples from Newburg residents. The studies are sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission and take place at the University of Rochester Medical Center’s Strong Memorial Hospital (Griffiths and Bryson ).

(1946 – 1947) University of Rochester researchers inject four male and two female human test subjects with uranium-234 and uranium-235 in dosages ranging from 6.4 to 70.7 micrograms per one kilogram of body  weight in order to study how much uranium they could tolerate before their kidneys become damaged (Goliszek).

Six male employees  of a Chicago metallurgical laboratory are given water  contaminated with plutonium-239 to drink so that researchers can learn how plutonium is absorbed into the digestive tract (Goliszek).

Researchers begin using patients in VA hospitals as test subjects for human medical experiments , cleverly worded as “investigations” or “observations” in medical study reports to avoid negative connotations and bad publicity (Sharav ).

The American public finally learns of the biowarfare experiments being done at Fort Detrick from a report released by the War Department (Goliszek).

(1946 – 1953)

The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission sponsors studies in which researchers from Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital and the Boston  University School of Medicine feed mentally disabled students at Fernald State School Quaker Oats breakfast cereal spiked with radioactive tracers every morning so that nutritionists can study how preservatives move through the human body and if they block the absorption of vitamins and minerals. Later, MIT  researchers conduct the same study at Wrentham State School (Sharav , Goliszek).

Human test subjects are given one to four injections of arsenic-76 at the University of Chicago Department of Medicine. Researchers take tissue biopsies from the subjects before and after the injections (Goliszek).

(1947)

Col. E.E. Kirkpatrick of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) issues a top-secret document (707075) dated Jan. 8. In it, he writes that “certain radioactive substances are being prepared for intravenous administration to human subjects as a part of the work of the contract” (Goliszek).

A secret AEC document dated April 17 reads, “It is desired that no document be released which refers to experiments with humans that might have an adverse reaction on public opinion or result in legal suits,” revealing that the U.S. government was aware of the health risks its nuclear tests  posed to military personnel conducting the tests or nearby civilians (Goliszek).

The CIA  begins studying LSD’s potential as a weapon by using military and civilian test subjects for experiments without their consent or even knowledge. Eventually, these LSD studies will evolve into the MKULTRA program in 1953 (Sharav ).

(1947 – 1953) The U.S. Navy begins Project Chatter to identify and test so-called “truth serums,” such as those used by the Soviet Union to interrogate spies. Mescaline and the central nervous system depressant scopolamine are among the many drugs tested on human subjects (Goliszek).

(1948)

Based on the secret studies performed on Newburgh, N.Y. residents beginning in 1945, Project F researchers publish a report in the August 1948 edition of the Journal of the American Dental Association, detailing fluoride’s health dangers. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) quickly censors it for “national security” reasons (Griffiths and Bryson ).

(1950)

(1950 – 1953) The CIA and later the Office of Scientific Intelligence begin Project Bluebird (renamed Project Artichoke in 1951) in order to find ways to “extract” information from CIA agents, control individuals “through special interrogation techniques,” “enhance memory ” and use “unconventional techniques, including hypnosis  and drugs” for offensive measures (Goliszek).

(1950)

(1950 – 1953) The CIA and later the Office of Scientific Intelligence begin Project Bluebird (renamed Project Artichoke in 1951) in order to find ways to “extract” information from CIA agents, control individuals “through special interrogation techniques,” “enhance memory ” and use “unconventional techniques, including hypnosis  and drugs” for offensive measures (Goliszek).

(1950 – 1953) The U.S. Army releases chemical clouds over six American and Canadian cities . Residents in Winnipeg, Canada, where a highly toxic  chemical called cadmium is dropped, subsequently experience high rates of respiratory illnesses (Cockburn and St. Clair, eds. ).

In order to determine how susceptible an American city could be to biological attack, the U.S. Navy sprays a cloud of Bacillus globigii bacteria  from ships over the San Francisco  shoreline. According to monitoring devices situated throughout the city to test the extent of infection, the eight thousand residents of San Francisco inhale five thousand or more bacteria particles, many becoming sick with pneumonia-like symptoms (Goliszek).

Dr. Joseph Strokes of the University of Pennsylvania infects 200 female prisoners with viral hepatitis to study the disease (Sharav ).

Doctors at the Cleveland City Hospital study changes in cerebral blood flow  by injecting test subjects with spinal anesthesia, inserting needles in their jugular veins and brachial arteries , tilting their heads down and, after massive blood loss causes paralysis and fainting, measuring their blood pressure . They often perform this experiment multiple times on the same subject (Goliszek).

Dr. D. Ewen Cameron, later of MKULTRA infamy due to his 1957 to1964 experiments on Canadians , publishes an article in the British Journal of Physical Medicine, in which he describes experiments that entail forcing schizophrenic patients at Manitoba’s Brandon Mental Hospital to lie naked under 15- to 200-watt red lamps for up to eight hours per day. His other experiments include placing mental patients in an electric cage that overheats their internal body temperatures to 103 degrees Fahrenheit, and inducing comas by giving patients large injections of insulin  (Goliszek).

(1951)

The U.S. Navy’s Project Bluebird is renamed Project Artichoke and begins human medical experiments that test the effectiveness of LSD, sodium pentothal and hypnosis for the interrogative purposes described in Project Bluebird’s objectives (1950) (Goliszek).

The U.S. Army secretly contaminates the Norfolk Naval Supply Center in Virginia and Washington , D.C.’s National Airport with a strain of bacteria chosen because African-Americans were believed to be more susceptible to it than Caucasians. The experiment causes food poisoning , respiratory problems and blood poisoning (Cockburn and St. Clair, eds. ).

(1951 – 1952) Researchers withhold insulin from diabetic patients for up to two days in order to observe the effects of diabetes; some test subjects go into diabetic comas (Goliszek).

(1951 – 1956) Under contract with the Air Force’s School of Aviation Medicine (SAM), the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston begins studying the effects of radiation on cancer  patients — many of them members of minority groups or indigents, according to sources — in order to determine both radiation’s ability to treat cancer and the possible long-term radiation effects of pilots  flying nuclear-powered planes. The study lasts until 1956, involving 263 cancer patients. Beginning in 1953, the subjects are required to sign a waiver form, but it still does not meet the informed consent guidelines established by the Wilson memo released that year. The TBI studies themselves would continue at four different institutions — Baylor University College of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, the U.S. Naval Hospital in Bethesda and the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine — until 1971 (U.S. Department of Energy , Goliszek).

American, Canadian and British military and intelligence officials gather a small group of eminent psychologists to a secret meeting at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Montreal about Communist “thought-control techniques.” They proposed a top-secret research program on behavior  modification — involving testing drugs, hypnosis, electroshock and lobotomies on humans (Barker ).

(1952)

Military scientists use the Dugway Proving Ground — which is located 87 miles southwest of Salt Lake City, Utah — in a series of experiments to determine how Brucella suis and Brucella melitensis spread in human populations. Today, over a half-century later, some experts  claim that we are all infected with these agents as a result of these experiments (Goliszek).

In a U.S. Department of Denfense-sponsored experiment, Henry Blauer dies after he is injected with mescaline at Columbia University’s New York State Psychiatric Institute (Sharav ).

At the famous Sloan-Kettering Institute, Chester M. Southam injects live cancer cells into prisoners at the Ohio State Prison to study the progression of the disease. Half of the prisoners in this National Institutes of Health-sponsored (NIH) study are black, awakening racial suspicions stemming from Tuskegee, which was also an NIH-sponsored study (Merritte, et al. ).

(1953)

(1953 – 1970) The CIA begins project MKNAOMI to “stockpile incapacitating and lethal materials, to develop gadgetry for the disseminations of these materials, and to test the effects of certain drugs on animals and humans.” As part of MKNAOMI, the CIA and the Special Operations Division of the Army Biological Laboratory at Fort Detrick try to develop two suicide  pill alternatives to the standard cyanide suicide pill given to CIA agents and U-2 pilots. CIA agents and U-2 pilots are meant to take these pills when they find themselves in situations in which they (and all the information they hold in their brains ) are in enemy hands. They also develop a “microbioinoculator” — a device that agents can use to fire small darts coated with biological agents that can remain potent for weeks or even months. These darts can be fired through clothing  and, most significantly, are undetectable during autopsy. Eventually, by the late 1960s, MKNAOMI enables the CIA to have a stockpile of biological toxins  — infectious viruses, paralytic shellfish toxin, lethal botulism toxin, snake venom and the severe skin disease-producing agent Mircosporum gypseum. Of course, the development of all of this “gadgetry” requires human experimentation (Goliszek).

(1953 – 1974) CIA Director Allen Dulles authorizes the MKULTRA program to produce and test drugs and biological agents that the CIA could use for mind control  and behavior modification. MKULTRA later becomes well known for its pioneering studies on LSD, which are often performed on prisoners or patrons of brothels set up and run by the CIA. The brothel experiments, known as “Operation Midnight Climax,” feature two-way mirrors set up in the brothels so that CIA agents can observe LSD’s effects on sexual behavior. Ironically, governmental figures sometimes slip LSD into each other’s drinks as part of the program, resulting in the LSD psychosis-induced suicide of Dr. Frank Olson indirectly at the hands of MKULTRA’s

MKULTRA’s infamous key player Dr. Sidney Gottlieb. Of all the hundreds of human test subjects used during MKULTRA, only 14 are ever notified of the involvement and only one is ever compensated ($15,000). Most of the MKULTRA files are eventually destroyed in 1973 (Elliston ; Merritte, et al. ; Barker ).

The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) sponsors iodine studies at the University of Iowa. In the first study, researchers give pregnant women 100 to 200 microcuries of iodine-131 and then study the women’s aborted embryos in order to learn at what stage and to what extent radioactive iodine crosses the placental barrier. In the second study, researchers give 12 male and 13 female newborns under 36 hours old and weighing between 5.5 and 8.5 pounds iodine-131 either orally or via intramuscular injection, later measuring the concentration of iodine in the newborns’ thyroid glands (Goliszek).

Secretary of Defense Charles Wilson issues the Wilson memo, a top-secret document establishing the Nuremberg Code as Department of Defense policy on human experimentation. The Wilson memo requires voluntary, written consent from a human medical research subject after he or she has been informed of “the nature , duration, and purpose of the experiment; the method and means by which it is to be conducted; all inconveniences and hazards reasonably to be expected; and effects upon his health or person which may possibly come from his participation in the experiment.” It also insists that doctors only use experimental treatments when other methods have failed (Berdon ).

As part of an AEC study, researchers feed 28 healthy infants at the University of Nebraska College of Medicine iodine-131 through a gastric tube and then test concentration of iodine in the infants’ thyroid glands 24 hours later (Goliszek).

Human medical experimentation in the United States: The shocking true history of modern medicine and psychiatry (1965-2005)

http://www.naturalnews.com/019187.html

Monday, March 06, 2006 by: Dani Veracity

This is part two of a two-part series on human medical experimentation. Click here to read part one and the introduction.

(1966)

The CIA continues a limited number of MKULTRA plans by beginning Project MKSEARCH to develop and test ways of using biological, chemical and radioactive materials in intelligence operations, and also to develop and test drugs that are able to produce predictable changes in human behavior and physiology (Goliszek).

Dr. Henry Beecher writes, “The well-being, the health, even the actual or potential life of all human beings, born or unborn, depend upon the continuing experimentation in man. Proceed it must; proceed it will. ‘The proper study of mankind is man,'” in his “exposé” on human medical experimentation Research and the Individual (“Human Experimentation: Before the Nazi Era and After”).

U.S. Army scientists drop light bulbs filled with Bacillus subtilis through ventilation gates and into the New York City subway system, exposing more than one million civilians to the bacteria (Goliszek).

The National Commission for the Protection of Research Subjects issues its Policies for the Protection of Human Subjects, which eventually creates what we now know as institutional review boards (IRBs) (Sharav).

(1967)

Continuing on his Dow Chemical Company-sponsored dioxin study without the company’s knowledge or consent, University of Pennsylvania Professor Albert Kligman increases the dosage of dioxin he applies to 10 prisoners’ skin to 7,500 micrograms, 468 times the dosage Dow official Gerald K. Rowe had authorized him to administer. As a result, the prisoners experience acne lesions that develop into inflammatory pustules and papules (Kaye).

The CIA places a chemical in the drinking water supply of the FDA headquarters in Washington, D.C. to see whether it is possible to spike drinking water with LSD and other substances (Cockburn and St. Clair, eds.).

In a study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, researchers inject pregnant women with radioactive cortisol to see if the radioactive material will cross the placentas and affect the fetuses (Goliszek).

The U.S. Army pays Professor Kligman to apply skin-blistering chemicals to Holmesburg Prison inmates’ faces and backs, so as to, in Professor Kligman’s words, “learn how the skin protects itself against chronic assault from toxic chemicals, the so-called hardening process,” information which would have both offensive and defensive applications for the U.S. military (Kaye).

The CIA and Edgewood Arsenal Research Laboratories begin an extensive program for developing drugs that can influence human behavior. This program includes Project OFTEN — which studies the toxicology, transmission and behavioral effects of drugs in animal and human subjects — and Project CHICKWIT, which gathers European and Asian drug development information (Goliszek).

Professor Kligman develops Retin-A as an acne cream (and eventually a wrinkle cream), turning him into a multi-millionaire (Kaye).

Researchers paralyze 64 prison inmates in California with a neuromuscular compound called succinylcholine, which produces suppressed breathing that feels similar to drowning. When five prisoners refuse to participate in the medical experiment, the prison’s special treatment board gives researchers permission to inject the prisoners with the drug against their will (Greger).

(1968)

Planned Parenthood of San Antonio and South Central Texas and the Southwest Foundation for Research and Education begin an oral contraceptive study on 70 poverty-stricken Mexican-American women, giving only half the oral contraceptives they think they are receiving and the other half a placebo. When the results of this study are released a few years later, it stirs tremendous controversy among Mexican-Americans (Sharav, Sauter).

(1969)

President Nixon ends the United States’ offensive biowarfare program, including human experimentation done at Fort Detrick. By this time, tens of thousands of civilians and members of the U.S. armed forces have wittingly and unwittingly acted as participants in experiments involving exposure to dangerous biological agents (Goliszek).

The U.S. military conducts DTC Test 69-12, which is an open-air test of VX and sarin nerve agents at the Army’s Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland, likely exposing military personnel (Goliszek, Martin).

Experimental drugs are tested on mentally disabled children in Milledgeville, Ga., without any institutional approval whatsoever (Sharav).

Dr. Donald MacArthur, the U.S. Department of Defense’s Deputy Director for Research and Technology, requests $10 million from Congress to develop a synthetic biological agent that would be resistant “to the immunological and therapeutic processes upon which we depend to maintain our relative freedom from infectious disease” (Cockburn and St. Clair, eds.).

Judge Sam Steinfield’s dissent in Strunk v. Strunk, 445 S.W.2d 145 marks the first time a judge has ever suggested that the Nuremberg Code be applied in American court cases (Sharav).

(1970)

A year after his request, under H.R. 15090, Dr. MacArthur receives funding to begin CIA-supervised mycoplasma research with Fort Detrick’s Special Operations Division and hopefully create a synthetic immunosuppressive agent. Some experts believe that this research may have inadvertently created HIV, the virus that causes AIDS (Goliszek).

Under order from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which also sponsored the Tuskegee Experiment, the free childcare program at Johns Hopkins University collects blood samples from 7,000 African-American youth, telling their parents that they are checking for anemia but actually checking for an extra Y chromosome (XYY), believed to be a biological predisposition to crime. The program director, Digamber Borganokar, does this experiment without Johns Hopkins University’s permission (Greger, Merritte, et al.).

(1971)

President Nixon converts Fort Detrick from an offensive biowarfare lab to the Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, now known as the National Cancer Institute at Frederick. In addition to cancer research, scientists study virology, immunology and retrovirology (including HIV) there. Additionally, the site is home to the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute, which researches drugs, vaccines and countermeasures for biological warfare, so the former Fort Detrick does not move far away from its biowarfare past (Goliszek).

Stanford University conducts the Stanford Prison Experiment on a group of college students in order to learn the psychology of prison life. Some students are given the role as prison guards, while the others are given the role of prisoners. After only six days, the proposed two-week study has to end because of its psychological effects on the participants. The “guards” had begun to act sadistic, while the “prisoners” started to show signs of depression and severe psychological stress (University of New Hampshire).

An article entitled “Viral Infections in Man Associated with Acquired Immunological Deficiency States” appears in Federation Proceedings. Dr. MacArthur and Fort Detrick’s Special Operations Division have, at this point, been conducting mycoplasma research to create a synthetic immunosuppressive agent for about one year, again suggesting that this research may have produced HIV (Goliszek).

(1972)

In studies sponsored by the U.S. Air Force, Dr. Amedeo Marrazzi gives LSD to mental patients at the University of Missouri Institute of Psychiatry and the University of Minnesota Hospital to study “ego strength” (Barker).

(1973)

An Ad Hoc Advisory Panel issues its Final Report on the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, writing, “Society can no longer afford to leave the balancing of individual rights against scientific progress to the scientific community” (Sharav).

(1974)

Congress enacts the National Research Act, creating the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research and finally setting standards for human experimentation on children (Breslow).

(1975)

The Department of Health, Education and Welfare gives the National Institutes of Health’s Policies for the Protection of Human Subjects (1966) regulatory status. Title 45, known as “The Common Rule,” officially creates institutional review boards (IRBs) (Sharav).

(1977)

The Kennedy Hearing initiates the process toward Executive Order 12333, prohibiting intelligence agencies from experimenting on humans without informed consent (Merritte, et al.).

The U.S. government issues an official apology and $400,000 to Jeanne Connell, the sole survivor from Col. Warren’s now-infamous plutonium injections at Strong Memorial Hospital, and the families of the other human test subjects (Burton Report).

The National Urban League holds its National Conference on Human Experimentation, stating, “We don’t want to kill science but we don’t want science to kill, mangle and abuse us” (Sharav).

(1978)

The CDC begins experimental hepatitis B vaccine trials in New York. Its ads for research subjects specifically ask for promiscuous homosexual men. Professor Wolf Szmuness of the Columbia University School of Public Health had made the vaccine’s infective serum from the pooled blood serum of hepatitis-infected homosexuals and then developed it in chimpanzees, the only animal susceptible to hepatitis B, leading to the theory that HIV originated in chimpanzees before being transferred over to humans via this vaccine. A few months after 1,083 homosexual men receive the vaccine, New York physicians begin noticing cases of Kaposi’s sarcoma, Mycoplasma penetrans and a new strain of herpes virus among New York’s homosexual community — diseases not usually seen among young, American men, but that would later be known as common opportunistic diseases associated with AIDS (Goliszek).

(1979)

The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research releases the Belmont Report, which establishes the foundations for research experimentation on humans. The Belmont Report mandates that researchers follow three basic principles: 1. Respect the subjects as autonomous persons and protect those with limited ability for independence (such as children), 2. Do no harm, 3. Choose test subjects justly — being sure not to target certain groups because of they are easily accessible or easily manipulated, rather than for reasons directly related to the tests (Berdon).

(1980)

A study reveals a high incidence of leukemia among the 18,000 military personnel who participated in 1957’s Operation Plumbbob (a href=”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Plumbbob”>”Operation Plumbob”).

According to blood samples tested years later for HIV, 20 percent of all New York homosexual men who participated in the 1978 hepatitis B vaccine experiment are HIV-positive by this point (Goliszek).

American doctors give experimental hormone shots to hundreds of Haitian men confined to detention camps in Miami and Puerto Rico, causing the men to develop a condition known as gynecomastia, in which men develop full-sized breasts (Cockburn and St. Clair, eds.).

The CDC continues its 1978 hepatitis B vaccine experiment in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago, St. Louis and Denver, recruiting over 7,000 homosexual men in San Francisco alone (Goliszek).

The FDA prohibits the use of prison inmates in pharmaceutical drug trials, leading to the advent of the experimental drug testing centers industry (Sharav).

The first AIDS case appears in San Francisco (Goliszek).

(1981)

(1981 – 1993) The Seattle-based Genetic Systems Corporation begins an ongoing medical experiment called Protocol No. 126, in which cancer patients at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle are given bone marrow transplants that contain eight experimental proteins made by Genetic Systems, rather than standard bone marrow transplants; 19 human subjects die from complications directly related to the experimental treatment (Goliszek).

A deep diving experiment at Duke University causes test subject Leonard Whitlock to suffer permanent brain damage (Sharav).

The CDC acknowledges that a disease known as AIDS exists and confirms 26 cases of the disease — all in previously healthy homosexuals living in New York, San Francisco and Los Angeles — again supporting the speculation that AIDS originated from the hepatitis B experiments from 1978 and 1980 (Goliszek).

(1982)

Thirty percent of the test subjects used in the CDC’s hepatitis B vaccine experiment are HIV-positive by this point (Goliszek).

(1984)

SFBC Phase I research clinic founded in Miami, Fla. By 2005, it would become the largest experimental drug testing center in North America with centers in Miami and Montreal, running Phase I to Phase IV clinical trials (Drug Development-Technology.com).

(1985)

A former U.S. Army sergeant tries to sue the Army for using drugs on him in without his consent or even his knowledge in United States v. Stanley, 483 U.S. 669. Justice Antonin Scalia writes the decision, clearing the U.S. military from any liability in past, present or future medical experiments without informed consent (Merritte, et al..

(1987)

Philadelphia resident Doris Jackson discovers that researchers have removed her son’s brain post mortem for medical study. She later learns that the state of Pennsylvania has a doctrine of “implied consent,” meaning that unless a patient signs a document stating otherwise, consent for organ removal is automatically implied (Merritte, et al.).

(1988)

The U.S. Justice Department pays nine Canadian survivors of the CIA and Dr. Cameron’s “psychic driving” experiments (1957 – 1964) $750,000 in out-of-court settlements, to avoid any further investigations into MKULTRA (Goliszek).

(1988 – 2001) The New York City Administration for Children’s Services begins allowing foster care children living in about two dozen children’s homes to be used in National Institutes of Health-sponsored (NIH) experimental AIDS drug trials. These children — totaling 465 by the program’s end — experience serious side effects, including inability to walk, diarrhea, vomiting, swollen joints and cramps. Children’s home employees are unaware that they are giving the HIV-infected children experimental drugs, rather than standard AIDS treatments (New York City ACS, Doran).

(1990)

The United States sends 1.7 million members of the armed forces, 22 percent of whom are African-American, to the Persian Gulf for the Gulf War (“Desert Storm”). More than 400,000 of these soldiers are ordered to take an experimental nerve agent medication called pyridostigmine, which is later believed to be the cause of Gulf War Syndrome — symptoms ranging from skin disorders, neurological disorders, incontinence, uncontrollable drooling and vision problems — affecting Gulf War veterans (Goliszek; Merritte, et al.).

The CDC and Kaiser Pharmaceuticals of Southern California inject 1,500 six-month-old black and Hispanic babies in Los Angeles with an “experimental” measles vaccine that had never been licensed for use in the United States. Adding to the risk, children less than a year old may not have an adequate amount of myelin around their nerves, possibly resulting in impaired neural development because of the vaccine. The CDC later admits that parents were never informed that the vaccine being injected into their children was experimental (Goliszek).

The FDA allows the U.S. Department of Defense to waive the Nuremberg Code and use unapproved drugs and vaccines in Operation Desert Shield (Sharav).

(1991)

In the May 27 issue of the Los Angeles Times, former U.S. Navy radio operator Richard Jenkins writes that he suffers from leukemia, chronic fatigue and kidney and liver disease as a result of the radiation exposure he received in 1958’s Operation Hardtack (Goliszek).

While participating in a UCLA study that withdraws schizophrenics off of their medications, Tony LaMadrid commits suicide (Sharav).

(1992)

Columbia University’s New York State Psychiatric Institute and the Mount Sinai School of Medicine give 100 males — mostly African-American and Hispanic, all between the ages of six and 10 and all the younger brothers of juvenile delinquents — 10 milligrams of fenfluramine (fen-fen) per kilogram of body weight in order to test the theory that low serotonin levels are linked to violent or aggressive behavior. Parents of the participants received $125 each, including a $25 Toys ‘R’ Us gift certificate (Goliszek).

(1993)

Researchers at the West Haven VA in Connecticut give 27 schizophrenics — 12 inpatients and 15 functioning volunteers — a chemical called MCPP that significantly increases their psychotic symptoms and, as researchers note, negatively affects the test subjects on a long-term basis (“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.”).

(1994)

In a double-blind experiment at New York VA Hospital, researchers take 23 schizophrenic inpatients off of their medications for a median of 30 days. They then give 17 of them 0.5 mg/kg amphetamine and six a placebo as a control, following up with PET scans at Brookhaven Laboratories. According to the researchers, the purpose of the experiment was “to specifically evaluate metabolic effects in subjects with varying degrees of amphetamine-induced psychotic exacerbation” (“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.”).

Albuquerque Tribune reporter Eileen Welsome receives a Pulitzer Prize for her investigative reporting into Col. Warren’s plutonium experiments on patients at Strong Memorial Hospital in 1945 (Burton Report).

In a federally funded experiment at New York VA Medical Center, researchers give schizophrenic veterans amphetamine, even though central nervous system stimulants worsen psychotic symptoms in 40 percent of schizophrenics (“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.”).

Researchers at Bronx VA Medical Center recruit 28 schizophrenic veterans who are functioning in society and give them L-dopa in order to deliberately induce psychotic relapse (“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.”).

President Clinton appoints the Advisory Commission on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE), which finally reveals the horrific experiments conducted during the Cold War era in its ACHRE Report.

(1995)

A 19-year-old University of Rochester student named Nicole Wan dies from participating in an MIT-sponsored experiment that tests airborne pollutant chemicals on humans. The experiment pays $150 to human test subjects (Sharav).

In the Mar. 15 President’s Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE), former human subjects, including those who were used in experiments as children, give sworn testimonies stating that they were subjected to radiation experiments and/or brainwashed, hypnotized, drugged, psychologically tortured, threatened and even raped during CIA experiments. These sworn statements include:

• Christina DeNicola’s statement that, in Tucson, Ariz., from 1966 to 1976, “Dr. B” performed mind control experiments using drugs, post-hypnotic injection and drama, and irradiation experiments on her neck, throat, chest and uterus. She was only four years old when the experiments started.

• Claudia Mullen’s testimony that Dr. Sidney Gottlieb (of MKULTRA fame) used chemicals, radiation, hypnosis, drugs, isolation in tubs of water, sleep deprivation, electric shock, brainwashing and emotional, sexual and verbal abuse as part of mind control experiments that had the ultimate objective of turning her, who was only a child at the time, into the “perfect spy.” She tells the advisory committee that researchers justified this abuse by telling her that she was serving her country “in their bold effort to fight Communism.”

• Suzanne Starr’s statement that “a physician, who was retired from the military, got children from the mountains of Colorado for experiments.” She says she was one of those children and that she was the victim of experiments involving environmental deprivation to the point of forced psychosis, spin programming, injections, rape and frequent electroshock and mind control sessions. “I have fought self-destructive programmed messages to kill myself, and I know what a programmed message is, and I don’t act on them,” she tells the advisory committee of the experiments’ long-lasting effects, even in her adulthood (Goliszek).

President Clinton publicly apologizes to the thousands of people who were victims of MKULTRA and other mind-control experimental programs (Sharav).

In Dr. Daniel P. van Kammen’s study, “Behavioral vs. Biochemical Prediction of Clinical Stability Following Haloperidol Withdrawal in Schizophrenia,” researchers recruit 88 veterans who are stabilized by their medications enough to make them functional in society, and hospitalize them for eight to 10 weeks. During this time, the researchers stop giving the veterans the medications that are enabling them to live in society, placing them back on a two- to four-week regimen of the standard dose of Haldol. Then, the veterans are “washed-out,” given lumbar punctures and put under six-week observation to see who would relapse and suffer symptomatic schizophrenia once again; 50 percent do (“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.”).

President Clinton appoints the National Bioethics Advisory Committee (Sharav).

Justice Edward Greenfield of the New York State Supreme Court rules that parents do not have the right to volunteer their mentally incapacitated children for non-therapeutic medical research studies and that no mentally incapacitated person whatsoever can be used in a medical experiment without informed consent (Sharav).

(1996)

Professor Adil E. Shamoo of the University of Maryland and the organization Citizens for Responsible Care and Research sends a written testimony on the unethical use of veterans in medical research to the U.S. Senate’s Committee on Governmental Affairs, stating: “This type of research is on-going nationwide in medical centers and VA hospitals supported by tens of millions of dollars of taxpayers money. These experiments are high risk and are abusive, causing not only physical and psychic harm to the most vulnerable groups but also degrading our society’s system of basic human values. Probably tens of thousands of patients are being subjected to such experiments” (“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.”).

The Department of Defense admits that Gulf War soldiers were exposed to chemical agents; however, 33 percent of all military personnel afflicted with Gulf War Syndrome never left the United States during the war, discrediting the popular mainstream belief that these symptoms are a result of exposure to Iraqi chemical weapons (Merritte, et al.).

In a federally funded experiment at West Haven VA in Connecticut, Yale University researchers give schizophrenic veterans amphetamine, even though central nervous system stimulants worsen psychotic symptoms in 40 percent of schizophrenics (“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.”).

President Clinton issues a formal apology to the subjects of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and their families (Sharav).

(1997)

In order to expose unethical medical experiments that provoke psychotic relapse in schizophrenic patients, the Boston Globe publishes a four-part series entitled “Doing Harm: Research on the Mentally Ill” (Sharav).

Researchers give 26 veterans at a VA hospital a chemical called Yohimbine to purposely induce post-traumatic stress disorder (“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.”).

In order to create a “psychosis model,” University of Cincinnati researchers give 16 schizophrenic patients at Cincinnati VA amphetamine in order to provoke repeats bouts of psychosis and eventually produce “behavioral sensitization” (Sharav).

National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) researchers give schizophrenic veterans amphetamine, even though central nervous system stimulants worsen psychotic symptoms in 40 percent of schizophrenics (“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.”).

In an experiment sponsored by the U.S. government, researchers withhold medical treatment from HIV-positive African-American pregnant women, giving them a placebo rather than AIDS medication (Sharav).

Researchers give amphetamine to 13 schizophrenic patients in a repetition of the 1994 “amphetamine challenge” at New York VA Hospital. As a result, the patients experience psychosis, delusions and hallucinations. The researchers claim to have informed consent (“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.”).

On Sept. 18, victims of unethical medical experiments at major U.S. research centers, including the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) testify before the National Bioethics Advisory Committee (Sharav).

(1999)

Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D. testifies on “The Unethical Use of Human Beings in High-Risk Research Experiments” before the U.S. House of Representatives’ House Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, alerting the House on the use of American veterans in VA Hospitals as human guinea pigs and calling for national reforms (“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.”).

Doctors at the University of Pennsylvania inject 18-year-old Jesse Gelsinger with an experimental gene therapy as part of an FDA-approved clinical trial. He dies four days later and his father suspects that he was not fully informed of the experiment’s risk (Goliszek)

During a clinical trial investigating the effectiveness of Propulsid for infant acid reflux, nine-month-old Gage Stevens dies at Children’s Hospital in Pittsburgh (Sharav).

(2000)

The Department of Defense begins declassifying the records of Project 112, including SHAD, and locating and assisting the veterans who were exposed to live toxins and chemical agents as part of Project 112. Many of them have already died (Goliszek).

President Clinton authorizes the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Act, which compensates the Department of Energy workers who sacrificed their health to build the United States’ nuclear defenses (Sharav).

The U.S. Air Force and rocket maker Lockheed Martin sponsor a Loma Linda University study that pays 100 Californians $1,000 to eat a dose of perchlorate — a toxic component of rocket fuel that causes cancer, damages the thyroid gland and hinders normal development in children and fetuses — every day for six months. The dose eaten by the test subjects is 83 times the safe dose of perchlorate set by the State of California, which has perchlorate in some of its drinking water. This Loma Linda study is the first large-scale study to use human subjects to test the harmful effects of a water pollutant and is “inherently unethical,” according to Environmental Working Group research director Richard Wiles (Goliszek, Envirnomental Working Group).

(2001)

Healthy 27-year-old Ellen Roche dies in a challenge study at Johns Hopkins University in Maryland (Sharav).

On its website, the FDA admits that its policy to include healthy children in human experiments “has led to an increasing number of proposals for studies of safety and pharmacokinetics, including those in children who do not have the condition for which the drug is intended” (Goliszek).

During a tobacco industry-financed Alzheimer’s experiment at Case Western University in Cleveland, Elaine Holden-Able dies after she drinks a glass of orange juice containing a dissolved dietary supplement (Sharav).

Radiologist Scott Scheer of Pennsylvania dies from kidney failure, severe anemia and possibly lupus — all caused by blood pressure drugs he was taking as part of a five-year clinical trial. After his death, his family sues the Institutional Review Board of Main Line Hospitals, the hospital that oversaw the study, and two doctors. Investigators from the federal Office for Human Research Protections, which is part of the Department of Health and Human Services, later conclude in a Dec. 20, 2002 letter to Scheer’s oldest daughter: “Your father apparently was not told about the risk of hydralazine-induced lupus … OHRP found that certain unanticipated problems involving risks to subjects or others were not promptly reported to appropriate institutional officials” (Willen and Evans, “Doctor Who Died in Drug Test Was Betrayed by System He Trusted.”)

In Higgins and Grimes v. Kennedy Krieger Institute The Maryland Court of Appeals makes a landmark decision regarding the use of children as test subjects, prohibiting non-therapeutic experimentation on children on the basis of “best interest of the individual child” (Sharav).

(2002)

President George W. Bush signs the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA), offering pharmaceutical companies six-month exclusivity in exchange for running clinical drug trials on children. This will of course increase the number of children used as human test subjects (Hammer Breslow).

(2003)

Two-year-old Michael Daddio of Delaware dies of congestive heart failure. After his death, his parents learn that doctors had performed an experimental surgery on him when he was five months old, rather than using the established surgical method of repairing his congenital heart defect that the parents had been told would be performed. The established procedure has a 90- to 95-percent success rate, whereas the inventor of the procedure performed on baby Daddio would later be fired from his hospital in 2004 (Willen and Evans, “Parents of Babies Who Died in Delaware Tests Weren’t Warned”).

(2004)

In his BBC documentary “Guinea Pig Kids” and BBC News article of the same name, reporter Jamie Doran reveals that children involved in the New York City foster care system were unwitting human subjects in experimental AIDS drug trials from 1988 to, in his belief, present times (Doran).

(2005)

In response to the BBC documentary and article “Guinea Pig Kids”, the New York City Administration of Children’s Services (ACS) sends out an Apr. 22 press release admitting that foster care children were used in experimental AIDS drug trials, but says that the last trial took place in 2001 and thus the trials are not continuing, as BBC reporter Jamie Doran claims. The ACS gives the extent and statistics of the experimental drug trials, based on its own records, and contracts the Vera Institute of Justice to conduct “an independent review of ACS policy and practice regarding the enrollment of HIV-positive children in foster care in clinical drug trials during the late 1980s and 1990s” (New York City ACS).

In exchange for receiving $2 million from the American Chemical Society, the EPA proposes the Children’s Health Environmental Exposure Research Study (CHEERS) to learn how children ranging from infancy to three years old ingest, inhale and absorb chemicals by exposing children from a poor, predominantly black area of Duval County, Fla., to these toxins. Due to pressure from activist groups, negative media coverage and two Democratic senators, the EPA eventually decides to drop the study on Apr. 8, 2005 (Organic Consumers Association).

Bloomberg releases a series of reports suggesting that SFBC, the largest experimental drug testing center of its time, exploits immigrant and other low-income test subjects and runs tests with limited credibility due to violations of both the FDA’s and SFBC’s own testing guidelines (Bloomberg).

Works cited:

Alliance for Human Research Protection. “‘Monster Experiment’ Taught Orphans to Stutter.”. June 11, 2001.

Barker, Allen. “The Cold War Experiments.” Mind Control.

Berdon, Victoria. “Codes of Medical and Human Experimentation Ethics.” The Least of My Brothers.

Brinker, Wendy. “James Marion Sims: Father Butcher.” Seed Show.

Burton Report. “Human Experimentation, Plutonium and Col. Stafford Warren.”

Cockburn, Alexander and Jeffrey St. Clair, eds. “Germ War: The U.S. Record.” Counter Punch.

“Donald Ewan [sic] Cameron.” Wikipedia.

Doran, Jamie. “Guinea Pig Kids.” BBC News. 30 Nov. 2004.

Drug Development-Technology.com. “SFBC.”

Elliston, Jon. “MKULTRA: CIA Mind Control.” Dossier: Paranormal Government.

Environmental Working Group. “U.S.: Lockheed Martin’s Tests on Humans.” CorpWatch.

Global Security. Chemical Corps. 2005.

Goliszek, Andrew. In the Name of Science. New York: St. Martin’s, 2003.

Greger, Michael, M.D. Heart Failure: Diary of a Third Year Medical Student.

Griffiths, Joel and Chris Bryson. “Toxic Secrets: Fluoride and the Atom Bomb.” Nexus Magazine 5:3. Apr. – May 1998.

Hammer Breslow, Lauren. “The Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act of 2002: The Rise of the Voluntary Incentive Structure and Congressional Refusal to Require Pediatric Testing.” Harvard Journal of Legislation Vol. 40.

“Human Experimentation: Before the Nazi Era and After.” Micah Books.

Kaye, Jonathan. “Retin-A’s Wrinkled Past.” Mind Control. Orig. pub. Penn History Review Spring 1997.

“Manhattan Project: Oak Ridge.” World Socialist Web Site. Oct. 18, 2002.

Meiklejohn, Gordon N., M.D. “Commission on Influenza.” Histories of the Commissions. Ed. Theodore E. Woodward, M.D. The Armed Forced Epidemiological Board. 1994.

Merritte, LaTasha, et al.. “The Banality of Evil: Human Medical Experimentation in the United States.” The Public Law Online Journal. Spring 1999.

Milgram, Stanley. “Milgram Experiment.” Wikipedia. 2006.

New York City Administration of Children’s Services. Press release. 22 Apr. 2005.

“Operation Plumbbob.” Wikipedia. 2005.

“Operation Whitecoat.” Religion and Ethics (Episode no. 708). Oct. 24, 2003.

Organic Consumers Association. “EPA and Chemical Industry to Study the Effects of Known Toxic Chemicals on Children”. 12 Apr. 2005.

Pacchioli, David. Subjected to Science. Mar. 1996.

“Placebo Effect.” Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine. 2006.

“Project Paperclip.” Wikipedia. 2005.

“Reviews and Notes: History of Medicine: Subjected to Science: Human Experimentation in America before the Second World War.” Annals of Internal Medicine 123:2. July 15, 1995.

Sharav, Vera Hassner. “Human Experiments: A Chronology of Human Rsearch.” Alliance for Human Research Protection.

Sauter, Daniel. Guide to MS 83 [Planned Parenthood of San Antonio and South Central Texas Records, 1931 – 1999]. University of Texas Library. Apr. 2001.

“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.” News from the Joint Hearing on Suspension of Medical Research at West Los Angeles and Sepulveda VA Medical Facilities and Informed Consent and Patient Safety in VA Medical Research. 21 Apr. 1999.

University of New Hampshire. “Chronology of Cases Involving Unethical Treatment of Human Subjects.” Responsible Conduct of Research.

University of Virginia Health System Health Sciences Library. “Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study.” 2004.

U.S. Department of Energy. “Chapter 8: Postwar TBI-Effects Experimentation: Continued Reliance on Sick Patients in Place of Healthy “Normals.” Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) Final Report.

Veterans Health Administration. Project 112/Project SHAD. May 26, 2005.

Willen, Liz and David Evans. “Doctor Who Died in Drug Test Was Betrayed by System He Trusted.” Bloomberg. Nov. 2, 2005.

—. “Parents of Babies Who Died in Delaware Tests Weren’t Warned.” Bloomberg. Nov. 2, 2005.

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This is part two of a two-part series on human medical experimentation. Click here to read part one and the introduction.

(1966)

The CIA continues a limited number of MKULTRA plans by beginning Project MKSEARCH to develop and test ways of using biological, chemical and radioactive materials in intelligence operations, and also to develop and test drugs that are able to produce predictable changes in human behavior and physiology (Goliszek).

Dr. Henry Beecher writes, “The well-being, the health, even the actual or potential life of all human beings, born or unborn, depend upon the continuing experimentation in man. Proceed it must; proceed it will. ‘The proper study of mankind is man,'” in his “exposé” on human medical experimentation Research and the Individual (“Human Experimentation: Before the Nazi Era and After”).

U.S. Army scientists drop light bulbs filled with Bacillus subtilis through ventilation gates and into the New York City subway system, exposing more than one million civilians to the bacteria (Goliszek).

The National Commission for the Protection of Research Subjects issues its Policies for the Protection of Human Subjects, which eventually creates what we now know as institutional review boards (IRBs) (Sharav).

 (1967)

Continuing on his Dow Chemical Company-sponsored dioxin study without the company’s knowledge or consent, University of Pennsylvania Professor Albert Kligman increases the dosage of dioxin he applies to 10 prisoners’ skin to 7,500 micrograms, 468 times the dosage Dow official Gerald K. Rowe had authorized him to administer. As a result, the prisoners experience acne lesions that develop into inflammatory pustules and papules (Kaye).

The CIA places a chemical in the drinking water supply of the FDA headquarters in Washington, D.C. to see whether it is possible to spike drinking water with LSD and other substances (Cockburn and St. Clair, eds.).

In a study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, researchers inject pregnant women with radioactive cortisol to see if the radioactive material will cross the placentas and affect the fetuses (Goliszek).

The U.S. Army pays Professor Kligman to apply skin-blistering chemicals to Holmesburg Prison inmates’ faces and backs, so as to, in Professor Kligman’s words, “learn how the skin protects itself against chronic assault from toxic chemicals, the so-called hardening process,” information which would have both offensive and defensive applications for the U.S. military (Kaye).

The CIA and Edgewood Arsenal Research Laboratories begin an extensive program for developing drugs that can influence human behavior. This program includes Project OFTEN — which studies the toxicology, transmission and behavioral effects of drugs in animal and human subjects — and Project CHICKWIT, which gathers European and Asian drug development information (Goliszek).

Professor Kligman develops Retin-A as an acne cream (and eventually a wrinkle cream), turning him into a multi-millionaire (Kaye).

Researchers paralyze 64 prison inmates in California with a neuromuscular compound called succinylcholine, which produces suppressed breathing that feels similar to drowning. When five prisoners refuse to participate in the medical experiment, the prison’s special treatment board gives researchers permission to inject the prisoners with the drug against their will (Greger).

(1968)

Planned Parenthood of San Antonio and South Central Texas and the Southwest Foundation for Research and Education begin an oral contraceptive study on 70 poverty-stricken Mexican-American women, giving only half the oral contraceptives they think they are receiving and the other half a placebo. When the results of this study are released a few years later, it stirs tremendous controversy among Mexican-Americans (Sharav, Sauter).

(1969)

President Nixon ends the United States’ offensive biowarfare program, including human experimentation done at Fort Detrick. By this time, tens of thousands of civilians and members of the U.S. armed forces have wittingly and unwittingly acted as participants in experiments involving exposure to dangerous biological agents (Goliszek).

The U.S. military conducts DTC Test 69-12, which is an open-air test of VX and sarin nerve agents at the Army’s Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland, likely exposing military personnel (Goliszek, Martin).

Experimental drugs are tested on mentally disabled children in Milledgeville, Ga., without any institutional approval whatsoever (Sharav).

Dr. Donald MacArthur, the U.S. Department of Defense’s Deputy Director for Research and Technology, requests $10 million from Congress to develop a synthetic biological agent that would be resistant “to the immunological and therapeutic processes upon which we depend to maintain our relative freedom from infectious disease” (Cockburn and St. Clair, eds.).

Judge Sam Steinfield’s dissent in Strunk v. Strunk, 445 S.W.2d 145 marks the first time a judge has ever suggested that the Nuremberg Code be applied in American court cases (Sharav).

(1970)

A year after his request, under H.R. 15090, Dr. MacArthur receives funding to begin CIA-supervised mycoplasma research with Fort Detrick’s Special Operations Division and hopefully create a synthetic immunosuppressive agent. Some experts believe that this research may have inadvertently created HIV, the virus that causes AIDS (Goliszek).

Under order from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which also sponsored the Tuskegee Experiment, the free childcare program at Johns Hopkins University collects blood samples from 7,000 African-American youth, telling their parents that they are checking for anemia but actually checking for an extra Y chromosome (XYY), believed to be a biological predisposition to crime. The program director, Digamber Borganokar, does this experiment without Johns Hopkins University’s permission (Greger, Merritte, et al.).

(1971)

President Nixon converts Fort Detrick from an offensive biowarfare lab to the Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, now known as the National Cancer Institute at Frederick. In addition to cancer research, scientists study virology, immunology and retrovirology (including HIV) there. Additionally, the site is home to the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute, which researches drugs, vaccines and countermeasures for biological warfare, so the former Fort Detrick does not move far away from its biowarfare past (Goliszek).

Stanford University conducts the Stanford Prison Experiment on a group of college students in order to learn the psychology of prison life. Some students are given the role as prison guards, while the others are given the role of prisoners. After only six days, the proposed two-week study has to end because of its psychological effects on the participants. The “guards” had begun to act sadistic, while the “prisoners” started to show signs of depression and severe psychological stress (University of New Hampshire).

An article entitled “Viral Infections in Man Associated with Acquired Immunological Deficiency States” appears in Federation Proceedings. Dr. MacArthur and Fort Detrick’s Special Operations Division have, at this point, been conducting mycoplasma research to create a synthetic immunosuppressive agent for about one year, again suggesting that this research may have produced HIV (Goliszek).

(1972)

In studies sponsored by the U.S. Air Force, Dr. Amedeo Marrazzi gives LSD to mental patients at the University of Missouri Institute of Psychiatry and the University of Minnesota Hospital to study “ego strength” (Barker).

(1973)

An Ad Hoc Advisory Panel issues its Final Report on the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, writing, “Society can no longer afford to leave the balancing of individual rights against scientific progress to the scientific community” (Sharav).

 (1974)

Congress enacts the National Research Act, creating the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research and finally setting standards for human experimentation on children (Breslow).

(1975)

The Department of Health, Education and Welfare gives the National Institutes of Health’s Policies for the Protection of Human Subjects (1966) regulatory status. Title 45, known as “The Common Rule,” officially creates institutional review boards (IRBs) (Sharav).

(1977)

The Kennedy Hearing initiates the process toward Executive Order 12333, prohibiting intelligence agencies from experimenting on humans without informed consent (Merritte, et al.).

The U.S. government issues an official apology and $400,000 to Jeanne Connell, the sole survivor from Col. Warren’s now-infamous plutonium injections at Strong Memorial Hospital, and the families of the other human test subjects (Burton Report).

The National Urban League holds its National Conference on Human Experimentation, stating, “We don’t want to kill science but we don’t want science to kill, mangle and abuse us” (Sharav).

(1978)

The CDC begins experimental hepatitis B vaccine trials in New York. Its ads for research subjects specifically ask for promiscuous homosexual men. Professor Wolf Szmuness of the Columbia University School of Public Health had made the vaccine’s infective serum from the pooled blood serum of hepatitis-infected homosexuals and then developed it in chimpanzees, the only animal susceptible to hepatitis B, leading to the theory that HIV originated in chimpanzees before being transferred over to humans via this vaccine. A few months after 1,083 homosexual men receive the vaccine, New York physicians begin noticing cases of Kaposi’s sarcoma, Mycoplasma penetrans and a new strain of herpes virus among New York’s homosexual community — diseases not usually seen among young, American men, but that would later be known as common opportunistic diseases associated with AIDS (Goliszek).

(1979)

The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research releases the Belmont Report, which establishes the foundations for research experimentation on humans. The Belmont Report mandates that researchers follow three basic principles: 1. Respect the subjects as autonomous persons and protect those with limited ability for independence (such as children), 2. Do no harm, 3. Choose test subjects justly — being sure not to target certain groups because of they are easily accessible or easily manipulated, rather than for reasons directly related to the tests (Berdon).

 

 (1980)

A study reveals a high incidence of leukemia among the 18,000 military personnel who participated in 1957’s Operation Plumbbob (a href=”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Plumbbob”>”Operation Plumbob”).

According to blood samples tested years later for HIV, 20 percent of all New York homosexual men who participated in the 1978 hepatitis B vaccine experiment are HIV-positive by this point (Goliszek).

American doctors give experimental hormone shots to hundreds of Haitian men confined to detention camps in Miami and Puerto Rico, causing the men to develop a condition known as gynecomastia, in which men develop full-sized breasts (Cockburn and St. Clair, eds.).

The CDC continues its 1978 hepatitis B vaccine experiment in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago, St. Louis and Denver, recruiting over 7,000 homosexual men in San Francisco alone (Goliszek).

The FDA prohibits the use of prison inmates in pharmaceutical drug trials, leading to the advent of the experimental drug testing centers industry (Sharav).

The first AIDS case appears in San Francisco (Goliszek).

(1981)

(1981 – 1993) The Seattle-based Genetic Systems Corporation begins an ongoing medical experiment called Protocol No. 126, in which cancer patients at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle are given bone marrow transplants that contain eight experimental proteins made by Genetic Systems, rather than standard bone marrow transplants; 19 human subjects die from complications directly related to the experimental treatment (Goliszek).

A deep diving experiment at Duke University causes test subject Leonard Whitlock to suffer permanent brain damage (Sharav).

The CDC acknowledges that a disease known as AIDS exists and confirms 26 cases of the disease — all in previously healthy homosexuals living in New York, San Francisco and Los Angeles — again supporting the speculation that AIDS originated from the hepatitis B experiments from 1978 and 1980 (Goliszek).

 (1982)

Thirty percent of the test subjects used in the CDC’s hepatitis B vaccine experiment are HIV-positive by this point (Goliszek).

(1984)

SFBC Phase I research clinic founded in Miami, Fla. By 2005, it would become the largest experimental drug testing center in North America with centers in Miami and Montreal, running Phase I to Phase IV clinical trials (Drug Development-Technology.com).

(1985)

A former U.S. Army sergeant tries to sue the Army for using drugs on him in without his consent or even his knowledge in United States v. Stanley, 483 U.S. 669. Justice Antonin Scalia writes the decision, clearing the U.S. military from any liability in past, presen

Introduction by the Health Ranger: The United States claims to be the world leader in medicine. But there’s a dark side to western medicine that few want to acknowledge: The horrifying medical experiments performed on impoverished people and their children all in the name of scientific progress. Many of these medical experiments were conducted on people without their knowledge, and most were conducted as part of an effort to seek profits from newly approved drugs or medical technologies.

Learn more: http://www.naturalnews.com/019189.html#ixzz3Ho2D5cgV

Human medical experimentation in the United States: The shocking true history of modern medicine and psychiatry (1833-1965)

http://www.naturalnews.com/019189.html

AND

Human medical experimentation in the United States: The shocking true history of modern medicine and psychiatry (1965-2005)

http://www.naturalnews.com/019187.html

 

Monday, March 06, 2006 by: Dani Veracity

This is part two of a two-part series on human medical experimentation. Click here to read part one and the introduction.

(1966)

The CIA continues a limited number of MKULTRA plans by beginning Project MKSEARCH to develop and test ways of using biological, chemical and radioactive materials in intelligence operations, and also to develop and test drugs that are able to produce predictable changes in human behavior and physiology (Goliszek).

Dr. Henry Beecher writes, “The well-being, the health, even the actual or potential life of all human beings, born or unborn, depend upon the continuing experimentation in man. Proceed it must; proceed it will. ‘The proper study of mankind is man,'” in his “exposé” on human medical experimentation Research and the Individual (“Human Experimentation: Before the Nazi Era and After”).

U.S. Army scientists drop light bulbs filled with Bacillus subtilis through ventilation gates and into the New York City subway system, exposing more than one million civilians to the bacteria (Goliszek).

The National Commission for the Protection of Research Subjects issues its Policies for the Protection of Human Subjects, which eventually creates what we now know as institutional review boards (IRBs) (Sharav).

(1967)

Continuing on his Dow Chemical Company-sponsored dioxin study without the company’s knowledge or consent, University of Pennsylvania Professor Albert Kligman increases the dosage of dioxin he applies to 10 prisoners’ skin to 7,500 micrograms, 468 times the dosage Dow official Gerald K. Rowe had authorized him to administer. As a result, the prisoners experience acne lesions that develop into inflammatory pustules and papules (Kaye).

The CIA places a chemical in the drinking water supply of the FDA headquarters in Washington, D.C. to see whether it is possible to spike drinking water with LSD and other substances (Cockburn and St. Clair, eds.).

In a study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, researchers inject pregnant women with radioactive cortisol to see if the radioactive material will cross the placentas and affect the fetuses (Goliszek).

The U.S. Army pays Professor Kligman to apply skin-blistering chemicals to Holmesburg Prison inmates’ faces and backs, so as to, in Professor Kligman’s words, “learn how the skin protects itself against chronic assault from toxic chemicals, the so-called hardening process,” information which would have both offensive and defensive applications for the U.S. military (Kaye).

The CIA and Edgewood Arsenal Research Laboratories begin an extensive program for developing drugs that can influence human behavior. This program includes Project OFTEN — which studies the toxicology, transmission and behavioral effects of drugs in animal and human subjects — and Project CHICKWIT, which gathers European and Asian drug development information (Goliszek).

Professor Kligman develops Retin-A as an acne cream (and eventually a wrinkle cream), turning him into a multi-millionaire (Kaye).

Researchers paralyze 64 prison inmates in California with a neuromuscular compound called succinylcholine, which produces suppressed breathing that feels similar to drowning. When five prisoners refuse to participate in the medical experiment, the prison’s special treatment board gives researchers permission to inject the prisoners with the drug against their will (Greger).

(1968)

Planned Parenthood of San Antonio and South Central Texas and the Southwest Foundation for Research and Education begin an oral contraceptive study on 70 poverty-stricken Mexican-American women, giving only half the oral contraceptives they think they are receiving and the other half a placebo. When the results of this study are released a few years later, it stirs tremendous controversy among Mexican-Americans (Sharav, Sauter).

(1969)

President Nixon ends the United States’ offensive biowarfare program, including human experimentation done at Fort Detrick. By this time, tens of thousands of civilians and members of the U.S. armed forces have wittingly and unwittingly acted as participants in experiments involving exposure to dangerous biological agents (Goliszek).

The U.S. military conducts DTC Test 69-12, which is an open-air test of VX and sarin nerve agents at the Army’s Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland, likely exposing military personnel (Goliszek, Martin).

Experimental drugs are tested on mentally disabled children in Milledgeville, Ga., without any institutional approval whatsoever (Sharav).

Dr. Donald MacArthur, the U.S. Department of Defense’s Deputy Director for Research and Technology, requests $10 million from Congress to develop a synthetic biological agent that would be resistant “to the immunological and therapeutic processes upon which we depend to maintain our relative freedom from infectious disease” (Cockburn and St. Clair, eds.).

Judge Sam Steinfield’s dissent in Strunk v. Strunk, 445 S.W.2d 145 marks the first time a judge has ever suggested that the Nuremberg Code be applied in American court cases (Sharav).

(1970)

A year after his request, under H.R. 15090, Dr. MacArthur receives funding to begin CIA-supervised mycoplasma research with Fort Detrick’s Special Operations Division and hopefully create a synthetic immunosuppressive agent. Some experts believe that this research may have inadvertently created HIV, the virus that causes AIDS (Goliszek).

Under order from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which also sponsored the Tuskegee Experiment, the free childcare program at Johns Hopkins University collects blood samples from 7,000 African-American youth, telling their parents that they are checking for anemia but actually checking for an extra Y chromosome (XYY), believed to be a biological predisposition to crime. The program director, Digamber Borganokar, does this experiment without Johns Hopkins University’s permission (Greger, Merritte, et al.).

(1971)

President Nixon converts Fort Detrick from an offensive biowarfare lab to the Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, now known as the National Cancer Institute at Frederick. In addition to cancer research, scientists study virology, immunology and retrovirology (including HIV) there. Additionally, the site is home to the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute, which researches drugs, vaccines and countermeasures for biological warfare, so the former Fort Detrick does not move far away from its biowarfare past (Goliszek).

Stanford University conducts the Stanford Prison Experiment on a group of college students in order to learn the psychology of prison life. Some students are given the role as prison guards, while the others are given the role of prisoners. After only six days, the proposed two-week study has to end because of its psychological effects on the participants. The “guards” had begun to act sadistic, while the “prisoners” started to show signs of depression and severe psychological stress (University of New Hampshire).

An article entitled “Viral Infections in Man Associated with Acquired Immunological Deficiency States” appears in Federation Proceedings. Dr. MacArthur and Fort Detrick’s Special Operations Division have, at this point, been conducting mycoplasma research to create a synthetic immunosuppressive agent for about one year, again suggesting that this research may have produced HIV (Goliszek).

(1972)

In studies sponsored by the U.S. Air Force, Dr. Amedeo Marrazzi gives LSD to mental patients at the University of Missouri Institute of Psychiatry and the University of Minnesota Hospital to study “ego strength” (Barker).

(1973)

An Ad Hoc Advisory Panel issues its Final Report on the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, writing, “Society can no longer afford to leave the balancing of individual rights against scientific progress to the scientific community” (Sharav).

(1974)

Congress enacts the National Research Act, creating the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research and finally setting standards for human experimentation on children (Breslow).

(1975)

The Department of Health, Education and Welfare gives the National Institutes of Health’s Policies for the Protection of Human Subjects (1966) regulatory status. Title 45, known as “The Common Rule,” officially creates institutional review boards (IRBs) (Sharav).

(1977)

The Kennedy Hearing initiates the process toward Executive Order 12333, prohibiting intelligence agencies from experimenting on humans without informed consent (Merritte, et al.).

The U.S. government issues an official apology and $400,000 to Jeanne Connell, the sole survivor from Col. Warren’s now-infamous plutonium injections at Strong Memorial Hospital, and the families of the other human test subjects (Burton Report).

The National Urban League holds its National Conference on Human Experimentation, stating, “We don’t want to kill science but we don’t want science to kill, mangle and abuse us” (Sharav).

(1978)

The CDC begins experimental hepatitis B vaccine trials in New York. Its ads for research subjects specifically ask for promiscuous homosexual men. Professor Wolf Szmuness of the Columbia University School of Public Health had made the vaccine’s infective serum from the pooled blood serum of hepatitis-infected homosexuals and then developed it in chimpanzees, the only animal susceptible to hepatitis B, leading to the theory that HIV originated in chimpanzees before being transferred over to humans via this vaccine. A few months after 1,083 homosexual men receive the vaccine, New York physicians begin noticing cases of Kaposi’s sarcoma, Mycoplasma penetrans and a new strain of herpes virus among New York’s homosexual community — diseases not usually seen among young, American men, but that would later be known as common opportunistic diseases associated with AIDS (Goliszek).

(1979)

The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research releases the Belmont Report, which establishes the foundations for research experimentation on humans. The Belmont Report mandates that researchers follow three basic principles: 1. Respect the subjects as autonomous persons and protect those with limited ability for independence (such as children), 2. Do no harm, 3. Choose test subjects justly — being sure not to target certain groups because of they are easily accessible or easily manipulated, rather than for reasons directly related to the tests (Berdon).

(1980)

A study reveals a high incidence of leukemia among the 18,000 military personnel who participated in 1957’s Operation Plumbbob (a href=”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Plumbbob”>”Operation Plumbob”).

According to blood samples tested years later for HIV, 20 percent of all New York homosexual men who participated in the 1978 hepatitis B vaccine experiment are HIV-positive by this point (Goliszek).

American doctors give experimental hormone shots to hundreds of Haitian men confined to detention camps in Miami and Puerto Rico, causing the men to develop a condition known as gynecomastia, in which men develop full-sized breasts (Cockburn and St. Clair, eds.).

The CDC continues its 1978 hepatitis B vaccine experiment in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago, St. Louis and Denver, recruiting over 7,000 homosexual men in San Francisco alone (Goliszek).

The FDA prohibits the use of prison inmates in pharmaceutical drug trials, leading to the advent of the experimental drug testing centers industry (Sharav).

The first AIDS case appears in San Francisco (Goliszek).

(1981)

(1981 – 1993) The Seattle-based Genetic Systems Corporation begins an ongoing medical experiment called Protocol No. 126, in which cancer patients at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle are given bone marrow transplants that contain eight experimental proteins made by Genetic Systems, rather than standard bone marrow transplants; 19 human subjects die from complications directly related to the experimental treatment (Goliszek).

A deep diving experiment at Duke University causes test subject Leonard Whitlock to suffer permanent brain damage (Sharav).

The CDC acknowledges that a disease known as AIDS exists and confirms 26 cases of the disease — all in previously healthy homosexuals living in New York, San Francisco and Los Angeles — again supporting the speculation that AIDS originated from the hepatitis B experiments from 1978 and 1980 (Goliszek).

(1982)

Thirty percent of the test subjects used in the CDC’s hepatitis B vaccine experiment are HIV-positive by this point (Goliszek).

(1984)

SFBC Phase I research clinic founded in Miami, Fla. By 2005, it would become the largest experimental drug testing center in North America with centers in Miami and Montreal, running Phase I to Phase IV clinical trials (Drug Development-Technology.com).

(1985)

A former U.S. Army sergeant tries to sue the Army for using drugs on him in without his consent or even his knowledge in United States v. Stanley, 483 U.S. 669. Justice Antonin Scalia writes the decision, clearing the U.S. military from any liability in past, present or future medical experiments without informed consent (Merritte, et al..

(1987)

Philadelphia resident Doris Jackson discovers that researchers have removed her son’s brain post mortem for medical study. She later learns that the state of Pennsylvania has a doctrine of “implied consent,” meaning that unless a patient signs a document stating otherwise, consent for organ removal is automatically implied (Merritte, et al.).

(1988)

The U.S. Justice Department pays nine Canadian survivors of the CIA and Dr. Cameron’s “psychic driving” experiments (1957 – 1964) $750,000 in out-of-court settlements, to avoid any further investigations into MKULTRA (Goliszek).

(1988 – 2001) The New York City Administration for Children’s Services begins allowing foster care children living in about two dozen children’s homes to be used in National Institutes of Health-sponsored (NIH) experimental AIDS drug trials. These children — totaling 465 by the program’s end — experience serious side effects, including inability to walk, diarrhea, vomiting, swollen joints and cramps. Children’s home employees are unaware that they are giving the HIV-infected children experimental drugs, rather than standard AIDS treatments (New York City ACS, Doran).

(1990)

The United States sends 1.7 million members of the armed forces, 22 percent of whom are African-American, to the Persian Gulf for the Gulf War (“Desert Storm”). More than 400,000 of these soldiers are ordered to take an experimental nerve agent medication called pyridostigmine, which is later believed to be the cause of Gulf War Syndrome — symptoms ranging from skin disorders, neurological disorders, incontinence, uncontrollable drooling and vision problems — affecting Gulf War veterans (Goliszek; Merritte, et al.).

The CDC and Kaiser Pharmaceuticals of Southern California inject 1,500 six-month-old black and Hispanic babies in Los Angeles with an “experimental” measles vaccine that had never been licensed for use in the United States. Adding to the risk, children less than a year old may not have an adequate amount of myelin around their nerves, possibly resulting in impaired neural development because of the vaccine. The CDC later admits that parents were never informed that the vaccine being injected into their children was experimental (Goliszek).

The FDA allows the U.S. Department of Defense to waive the Nuremberg Code and use unapproved drugs and vaccines in Operation Desert Shield (Sharav).

(1991)

In the May 27 issue of the Los Angeles Times, former U.S. Navy radio operator Richard Jenkins writes that he suffers from leukemia, chronic fatigue and kidney and liver disease as a result of the radiation exposure he received in 1958’s Operation Hardtack (Goliszek).

While participating in a UCLA study that withdraws schizophrenics off of their medications, Tony LaMadrid commits suicide (Sharav).

(1992)

Columbia University’s New York State Psychiatric Institute and the Mount Sinai School of Medicine give 100 males — mostly African-American and Hispanic, all between the ages of six and 10 and all the younger brothers of juvenile delinquents — 10 milligrams of fenfluramine (fen-fen) per kilogram of body weight in order to test the theory that low serotonin levels are linked to violent or aggressive behavior. Parents of the participants received $125 each, including a $25 Toys ‘R’ Us gift certificate (Goliszek).

(1993)

Researchers at the West Haven VA in Connecticut give 27 schizophrenics — 12 inpatients and 15 functioning volunteers — a chemical called MCPP that significantly increases their psychotic symptoms and, as researchers note, negatively affects the test subjects on a long-term basis (“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.”).

(1994)

In a double-blind experiment at New York VA Hospital, researchers take 23 schizophrenic inpatients off of their medications for a median of 30 days. They then give 17 of them 0.5 mg/kg amphetamine and six a placebo as a control, following up with PET scans at Brookhaven Laboratories. According to the researchers, the purpose of the experiment was “to specifically evaluate metabolic effects in subjects with varying degrees of amphetamine-induced psychotic exacerbation” (“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.”).

Albuquerque Tribune reporter Eileen Welsome receives a Pulitzer Prize for her investigative reporting into Col. Warren’s plutonium experiments on patients at Strong Memorial Hospital in 1945 (Burton Report).

In a federally funded experiment at New York VA Medical Center, researchers give schizophrenic veterans amphetamine, even though central nervous system stimulants worsen psychotic symptoms in 40 percent of schizophrenics (“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.”).

Researchers at Bronx VA Medical Center recruit 28 schizophrenic veterans who are functioning in society and give them L-dopa in order to deliberately induce psychotic relapse (“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.”).

President Clinton appoints the Advisory Commission on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE), which finally reveals the horrific experiments conducted during the Cold War era in its ACHRE Report.

(1995)

A 19-year-old University of Rochester student named Nicole Wan dies from participating in an MIT-sponsored experiment that tests airborne pollutant chemicals on humans. The experiment pays $150 to human test subjects (Sharav).

In the Mar. 15 President’s Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE), former human subjects, including those who were used in experiments as children, give sworn testimonies stating that they were subjected to radiation experiments and/or brainwashed, hypnotized, drugged, psychologically tortured, threatened and even raped during CIA experiments. These sworn statements include:

• Christina DeNicola’s statement that, in Tucson, Ariz., from 1966 to 1976, “Dr. B” performed mind control experiments using drugs, post-hypnotic injection and drama, and irradiation experiments on her neck, throat, chest and uterus. She was only four years old when the experiments started.

• Claudia Mullen’s testimony that Dr. Sidney Gottlieb (of MKULTRA fame) used chemicals, radiation, hypnosis, drugs, isolation in tubs of water, sleep deprivation, electric shock, brainwashing and emotional, sexual and verbal abuse as part of mind control experiments that had the ultimate objective of turning her, who was only a child at the time, into the “perfect spy.” She tells the advisory committee that researchers justified this abuse by telling her that she was serving her country “in their bold effort to fight Communism.”

• Suzanne Starr’s statement that “a physician, who was retired from the military, got children from the mountains of Colorado for experiments.” She says she was one of those children and that she was the victim of experiments involving environmental deprivation to the point of forced psychosis, spin programming, injections, rape and frequent electroshock and mind control sessions. “I have fought self-destructive programmed messages to kill myself, and I know what a programmed message is, and I don’t act on them,” she tells the advisory committee of the experiments’ long-lasting effects, even in her adulthood (Goliszek).

President Clinton publicly apologizes to the thousands of people who were victims of MKULTRA and other mind-control experimental programs (Sharav).

In Dr. Daniel P. van Kammen’s study, “Behavioral vs. Biochemical Prediction of Clinical Stability Following Haloperidol Withdrawal in Schizophrenia,” researchers recruit 88 veterans who are stabilized by their medications enough to make them functional in society, and hospitalize them for eight to 10 weeks. During this time, the researchers stop giving the veterans the medications that are enabling them to live in society, placing them back on a two- to four-week regimen of the standard dose of Haldol. Then, the veterans are “washed-out,” given lumbar punctures and put under six-week observation to see who would relapse and suffer symptomatic schizophrenia once again; 50 percent do (“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.”).

President Clinton appoints the National Bioethics Advisory Committee (Sharav).

Justice Edward Greenfield of the New York State Supreme Court rules that parents do not have the right to volunteer their mentally incapacitated children for non-therapeutic medical research studies and that no mentally incapacitated person whatsoever can be used in a medical experiment without informed consent (Sharav).

(1996)

Professor Adil E. Shamoo of the University of Maryland and the organization Citizens for Responsible Care and Research sends a written testimony on the unethical use of veterans in medical research to the U.S. Senate’s Committee on Governmental Affairs, stating: “This type of research is on-going nationwide in medical centers and VA hospitals supported by tens of millions of dollars of taxpayers money. These experiments are high risk and are abusive, causing not only physical and psychic harm to the most vulnerable groups but also degrading our society’s system of basic human values. Probably tens of thousands of patients are being subjected to such experiments” (“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.”).

The Department of Defense admits that Gulf War soldiers were exposed to chemical agents; however, 33 percent of all military personnel afflicted with Gulf War Syndrome never left the United States during the war, discrediting the popular mainstream belief that these symptoms are a result of exposure to Iraqi chemical weapons (Merritte, et al.).

In a federally funded experiment at West Haven VA in Connecticut, Yale University researchers give schizophrenic veterans amphetamine, even though central nervous system stimulants worsen psychotic symptoms in 40 percent of schizophrenics (“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.”).

President Clinton issues a formal apology to the subjects of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and their families (Sharav).

(1997)

In order to expose unethical medical experiments that provoke psychotic relapse in schizophrenic patients, the Boston Globe publishes a four-part series entitled “Doing Harm: Research on the Mentally Ill” (Sharav).

Researchers give 26 veterans at a VA hospital a chemical called Yohimbine to purposely induce post-traumatic stress disorder (“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.”).

In order to create a “psychosis model,” University of Cincinnati researchers give 16 schizophrenic patients at Cincinnati VA amphetamine in order to provoke repeats bouts of psychosis and eventually produce “behavioral sensitization” (Sharav).

National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) researchers give schizophrenic veterans amphetamine, even though central nervous system stimulants worsen psychotic symptoms in 40 percent of schizophrenics (“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.”).

In an experiment sponsored by the U.S. government, researchers withhold medical treatment from HIV-positive African-American pregnant women, giving them a placebo rather than AIDS medication (Sharav).

Researchers give amphetamine to 13 schizophrenic patients in a repetition of the 1994 “amphetamine challenge” at New York VA Hospital. As a result, the patients experience psychosis, delusions and hallucinations. The researchers claim to have informed consent (“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.”).

On Sept. 18, victims of unethical medical experiments at major U.S. research centers, including the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) testify before the National Bioethics Advisory Committee (Sharav).

(1999)

Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D. testifies on “The Unethical Use of Human Beings in High-Risk Research Experiments” before the U.S. House of Representatives’ House Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, alerting the House on the use of American veterans in VA Hospitals as human guinea pigs and calling for national reforms (“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.”).

Doctors at the University of Pennsylvania inject 18-year-old Jesse Gelsinger with an experimental gene therapy as part of an FDA-approved clinical trial. He dies four days later and his father suspects that he was not fully informed of the experiment’s risk (Goliszek)

During a clinical trial investigating the effectiveness of Propulsid for infant acid reflux, nine-month-old Gage Stevens dies at Children’s Hospital in Pittsburgh (Sharav).

(2000)

The Department of Defense begins declassifying the records of Project 112, including SHAD, and locating and assisting the veterans who were exposed to live toxins and chemical agents as part of Project 112. Many of them have already died (Goliszek).

President Clinton authorizes the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Act, which compensates the Department of Energy workers who sacrificed their health to build the United States’ nuclear defenses (Sharav).

The U.S. Air Force and rocket maker Lockheed Martin sponsor a Loma Linda University study that pays 100 Californians $1,000 to eat a dose of perchlorate — a toxic component of rocket fuel that causes cancer, damages the thyroid gland and hinders normal development in children and fetuses — every day for six months. The dose eaten by the test subjects is 83 times the safe dose of perchlorate set by the State of California, which has perchlorate in some of its drinking water. This Loma Linda study is the first large-scale study to use human subjects to test the harmful effects of a water pollutant and is “inherently unethical,” according to Environmental Working Group research director Richard Wiles (Goliszek, Envirnomental Working Group).

(2001)

Healthy 27-year-old Ellen Roche dies in a challenge study at Johns Hopkins University in Maryland (Sharav).

On its website, the FDA admits that its policy to include healthy children in human experiments “has led to an increasing number of proposals for studies of safety and pharmacokinetics, including those in children who do not have the condition for which the drug is intended” (Goliszek).

During a tobacco industry-financed Alzheimer’s experiment at Case Western University in Cleveland, Elaine Holden-Able dies after she drinks a glass of orange juice containing a dissolved dietary supplement (Sharav).

Radiologist Scott Scheer of Pennsylvania dies from kidney failure, severe anemia and possibly lupus — all caused by blood pressure drugs he was taking as part of a five-year clinical trial. After his death, his family sues the Institutional Review Board of Main Line Hospitals, the hospital that oversaw the study, and two doctors. Investigators from the federal Office for Human Research Protections, which is part of the Department of Health and Human Services, later conclude in a Dec. 20, 2002 letter to Scheer’s oldest daughter: “Your father apparently was not told about the risk of hydralazine-induced lupus … OHRP found that certain unanticipated problems involving risks to subjects or others were not promptly reported to appropriate institutional officials” (Willen and Evans, “Doctor Who Died in Drug Test Was Betrayed by System He Trusted.”)

In Higgins and Grimes v. Kennedy Krieger Institute The Maryland Court of Appeals makes a landmark decision regarding the use of children as test subjects, prohibiting non-therapeutic experimentation on children on the basis of “best interest of the individual child” (Sharav).

(2002)

President George W. Bush signs the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA), offering pharmaceutical companies six-month exclusivity in exchange for running clinical drug trials on children. This will of course increase the number of children used as human test subjects (Hammer Breslow).

(2003)

Two-year-old Michael Daddio of Delaware dies of congestive heart failure. After his death, his parents learn that doctors had performed an experimental surgery on him when he was five months old, rather than using the established surgical method of repairing his congenital heart defect that the parents had been told would be performed. The established procedure has a 90- to 95-percent success rate, whereas the inventor of the procedure performed on baby Daddio would later be fired from his hospital in 2004 (Willen and Evans, “Parents of Babies Who Died in Delaware Tests Weren’t Warned”).

(2004)

In his BBC documentary “Guinea Pig Kids” and BBC News article of the same name, reporter Jamie Doran reveals that children involved in the New York City foster care system were unwitting human subjects in experimental AIDS drug trials from 1988 to, in his belief, present times (Doran).

(2005)

In response to the BBC documentary and article “Guinea Pig Kids”, the New York City Administration of Children’s Services (ACS) sends out an Apr. 22 press release admitting that foster care children were used in experimental AIDS drug trials, but says that the last trial took place in 2001 and thus the trials are not continuing, as BBC reporter Jamie Doran claims. The ACS gives the extent and statistics of the experimental drug trials, based on its own records, and contracts the Vera Institute of Justice to conduct “an independent review of ACS policy and practice regarding the enrollment of HIV-positive children in foster care in clinical drug trials during the late 1980s and 1990s” (New York City ACS).

In exchange for receiving $2 million from the American Chemical Society, the EPA proposes the Children’s Health Environmental Exposure Research Study (CHEERS) to learn how children ranging from infancy to three years old ingest, inhale and absorb chemicals by exposing children from a poor, predominantly black area of Duval County, Fla., to these toxins. Due to pressure from activist groups, negative media coverage and two Democratic senators, the EPA eventually decides to drop the study on Apr. 8, 2005 (Organic Consumers Association).

Bloomberg releases a series of reports suggesting that SFBC, the largest experimental drug testing center of its time, exploits immigrant and other low-income test subjects and runs tests with limited credibility due to violations of both the FDA’s and SFBC’s own testing guidelines (Bloomberg).

Works cited:

Alliance for Human Research Protection. “‘Monster Experiment’ Taught Orphans to Stutter.”. June 11, 2001.

Barker, Allen. “The Cold War Experiments.” Mind Control.

Berdon, Victoria. “Codes of Medical and Human Experimentation Ethics.” The Least of My Brothers.

Brinker, Wendy. “James Marion Sims: Father Butcher.” Seed Show.

Burton Report. “Human Experimentation, Plutonium and Col. Stafford Warren.”

Cockburn, Alexander and Jeffrey St. Clair, eds. “Germ War: The U.S. Record.” Counter Punch.

“Donald Ewan [sic] Cameron.” Wikipedia.

Doran, Jamie. “Guinea Pig Kids.” BBC News. 30 Nov. 2004.

Drug Development-Technology.com. “SFBC.”

Elliston, Jon. “MKULTRA: CIA Mind Control.” Dossier: Paranormal Government.

Environmental Working Group. “U.S.: Lockheed Martin’s Tests on Humans.” CorpWatch.

Global Security. Chemical Corps. 2005.

Goliszek, Andrew. In the Name of Science. New York: St. Martin’s, 2003.

Greger, Michael, M.D. Heart Failure: Diary of a Third Year Medical Student.

Griffiths, Joel and Chris Bryson. “Toxic Secrets: Fluoride and the Atom Bomb.” Nexus Magazine 5:3. Apr. – May 1998.

Hammer Breslow, Lauren. “The Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act of 2002: The Rise of the Voluntary Incentive Structure and Congressional Refusal to Require Pediatric Testing.” Harvard Journal of Legislation Vol. 40.

“Human Experimentation: Before the Nazi Era and After.” Micah Books.

Kaye, Jonathan. “Retin-A’s Wrinkled Past.” Mind Control. Orig. pub. Penn History Review Spring 1997.

“Manhattan Project: Oak Ridge.” World Socialist Web Site. Oct. 18, 2002.

Meiklejohn, Gordon N., M.D. “Commission on Influenza.” Histories of the Commissions. Ed. Theodore E. Woodward, M.D. The Armed Forced Epidemiological Board. 1994.

Merritte, LaTasha, et al.. “The Banality of Evil: Human Medical Experimentation in the United States.” The Public Law Online Journal. Spring 1999.

Milgram, Stanley. “Milgram Experiment.” Wikipedia. 2006.

New York City Administration of Children’s Services. Press release. 22 Apr. 2005.

“Operation Plumbbob.” Wikipedia. 2005.

“Operation Whitecoat.” Religion and Ethics (Episode no. 708). Oct. 24, 2003.

Organic Consumers Association. “EPA and Chemical Industry to Study the Effects of Known Toxic Chemicals on Children”. 12 Apr. 2005.

Pacchioli, David. Subjected to Science. Mar. 1996.

“Placebo Effect.” Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine. 2006.

“Project Paperclip.” Wikipedia. 2005.

“Reviews and Notes: History of Medicine: Subjected to Science: Human Experimentation in America before the Second World War.” Annals of Internal Medicine 123:2. July 15, 1995.

Sharav, Vera Hassner. “Human Experiments: A Chronology of Human Rsearch.” Alliance for Human Research Protection.

Sauter, Daniel. Guide to MS 83 [Planned Parenthood of San Antonio and South Central Texas Records, 1931 – 1999]. University of Texas Library. Apr. 2001.

“Testimony of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.” News from the Joint Hearing on Suspension of Medical Research at West Los Angeles and Sepulveda VA Medical Facilities and Informed Consent and Patient Safety in VA Medical Research. 21 Apr. 1999.

University of New Hampshire. “Chronology of Cases Involving Unethical Treatment of Human Subjects.” Responsible Conduct of Research.

University of Virginia Health System Health Sciences Library. “Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study.” 2004.

U.S. Department of Energy. “Chapter 8: Postwar TBI-Effects Experimentation: Continued Reliance on Sick Patients in Place of Healthy “Normals.” Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) Final Report.

Veterans Health Administration. Project 112/Project SHAD. May 26, 2005.

Willen, Liz and David Evans. “Doctor Who Died in Drug Test Was Betrayed by System He Trusted.” Bloomberg. Nov. 2, 2005.

—. “Parents of Babies Who Died in Delaware Tests Weren’t Warned.” Bloomberg. Nov. 2, 2005.

Articles Related to This Article:

• Vaccines and Medical Experiments on Children, Minorities, Woman and Inmates (1845 – 2007)

• Human medical experimentation in the United States: The shocking true history of modern medicine and psychiatry (1833-1965)

• Big Pharma researcher admits to faking dozens of research studies for Pfizer, Merck (opinion)

• Guatemalan STD medical experiments were just one crime in a long history of medical-government collusion to use humans as guinea pigs

• CDC vaccine scientist who downplayed links to autism indicted by DOJ in alleged fraud scheme

• Fraud in medical research: A frightening, all-too-common trend on the rise

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POR UM NOVO PARADIGMA DE CONDUTA E TRATAMENTO

Por um novo Paradigma
de Conduta e Tratamento

POR UM NOVO PARADIGMA DE CONDUTA E TRATAMENTO

Por Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra
Médico Internista e Neurologista
Professor Associado Livre-Docente da Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade

 


O Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade (“Instituto de Autoimunidade”) foi criado no primeiro semestre de 2011, a partir da iniciativa deste médico signatário e de ex-pacientes (atualmente seus amigos) que apresentavam manifestações autoimunitárias, e que foram beneficiados com o tratamento a eles oferecido. Atualmente essas pessoas possuem um nível normal de qualidade de vida, mantendo-se livres das agressões do sistema imunológico, ao ponto de considerarem-se ex-portadores da doença e participam da direção do Instituto de Autoimunidade, idealisticamente voltados para viabilizarem o mesmo benefício para outros pacientes, especialmente os mais carentes.

Os relatos espontâneos dos pacientes beneficiados geraram grande repercussão nas comunidades da rede mundial de computadores, originando a demanda pelas atividades a que se propõe o Instituto de Autoimunidade.O alvo das atividades do Instituto de Autoimunidade volta-se para a identificação e pcorreção de distúrbios metabólicos causadores das doenças autoimunitárias, iniara a cialmente com especial atenção para a correção da deficiência de vitamina D, hoje amplamente reconhecida por diversos membros da comunidade científica internacional como fator primordial no surgimento e exacerbação da atividade de doenças autoimunitárias e outras doenças graves, tais como câncer.


A “vitamina D” (ou “colecalciferol”) é, na realidade, atualmente considerada um pré-hormônio no meio científico (pois é transformada em diversas células do organismo humano no hormônio calcitriol – hormônio esse potencialmente capaz de modificar 229 funções biológicas no organismo humano – referência 1). A utilização do colecalciferol como tratamento via oral (desde que em doses fisiologicamente realistas – próximas daquelas obtidas através da exposição solar abundante) tem baixo custo e alta efetividade; mostra-se capaz de manter os pacientes sem os prejuízos físicos, psíquicos e sociais relacionados às doenças autoimunitárias, além de promover a regressão potencialmente completa de sequelas recentemente adquiridas, o bem-estar e a autoconfiança do paciente.

Poupa-se ao sistema de saúde público e privado vultosos gastos com internações hospitalares e medicamentos dispendiosos, ensejando-se a um grande número de pacientes uma vida essencialmente normal e produtiva, livrando-os de uma sobrevivência na condição de doentes crônicos, incapacitados para o trabalho e dependentes do sistema previdenciário. Enfatiza-se que não se trata de um tratamento alternativo, mas de fato de reconstituir o mecanismo que a própria natureza desenvolveu com o objetivo de evitar a agressão autoimunitária contra o próprio organismo.Em vista do conflito com interesses relacionados ao comércio de medicamentos (que mensalmente movimenta somas bilionárias) que atravanca a absorção desses conhecimentos mais recentes pela comunidade médica, o Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade assume já como força motriz inspiradora de suas atividades, desde a sua fundação, o fundamental compromisso de difundir as bases desse tratamento para outros profissionais médicos, para que se tornem também eles elementos difusores dessa terapia, dessa forma contribuindo para o encurtamento do tempo que será gasto para que um número maior de pacientes sejam beneficiados.


O conhecimento científico atual revela que a deficiência de vitamina D (que afeta 76.5% de moradores na cidade de São Paulo durante o inverno, baixando para apenas 37.3% durante o verão (segundo pesquisas publicadas por pesquisadores da USP e da UNIFESP em 2010 – referência 2) está associado à ocorrência (suscetibilidade) e à sustentação (gravidade) de virtualmente todas as doenças ou manifestações autoimunitárias, incluindo-se a esclerose múltipla, neurite óptica, doença de Devic, doença de Guillain-Barré (poliradiculo-neurite), polineuropatia, miastenia gravis, artrite reumatóide, lúpus (discóide ou eritematoso sistêmico), doença de Crohn, retocolite ulcerativa, doença celíaca, cirrose biliar primária, hipotireoidismo (tireoidite de Hashimoto), uveíte, episclerite, psoríase, vitiligo, abortos no primeiro trimestre da gestação, doença periodontal, diabete infanto-juvenil, alergias, etc. Também encontram-se associados à deficiência de vitamina D (facilitados, induzidos ou favorecidos por ela) outros distúrbios ou doenças não autoimunitárias (ou ainda não classificadas como autoimunitárias pela ciência contemporânea), tais como câncer, hipertensão, diabete da maturidade, acidentes cardiovasculares, osteopenia e osteoporose, depressão, distúrbio bipolar, esquizofrenia, infertilidade, malformações congênitas, dor crônica (incluindo-se a fibromialgia e a enxaqueca), doenças neurodegenerativas (como Parkinson e Alzheimer), sonolência excessiva, etc.

Evidências epidemiológicas recentes indicam que o autismo é provavelmente causado ou pelo menos grandemente facilitado pela deficiência grave de vitamina D ocorrendo durante a gestação da criança afetada.Atualmente existem inúmeras fontes científicas que evidenciam a imperiosa necessidade ética de não se permitir que quaisquer pessoas (sejam pacientes portadores ou não dessas doenças ou distúrbios) sejam mantidos com deficiência de vitamina D – o que segue acontecendo também em decorrência da habitual suplementação de apenas 200 UI por dia na prática médica comum. Com essas doses irrisórias, um paciente portador de esclerose múltipla passa de um nível circulante de vitamina D médio de 14 ng/ml para apenas 16 ng/ml depois de 2 meses de tratamento. Os valores circulantes de referência para a vitamina D [medida sob a forma de 25(OH)D3, nunca (!) sob a forma de 1,25(OH)2D3] são de 30-100 ng/ml para a grande maioria dos laboratórios clínicos. Enfatiza-se que o nível de 30 ng/ml seria ainda inferior ao adequado segundo cientistas internacionais sérios e éticos, que propõem como ideal os níveis de ao menos 40-50 ng/ml de 25(OH)D3 para uma pessoa normal. As pesquisas mais recentes, no entanto, têm demonstrado que os portadores de doenças autoimunitárias, por razões genéticas (referências 3 e 4), são parcialmente resistentes aos efeitos do colecalciferol, necessitando, portanto, de níveis ainda mais elevados para estarem livres das agressões do seu próprio sistema imunológico. Nesses casos, o nível adequado somente pode ser estabelecido mediante o acompanhamento clínico e laboratorial que permita o ajuste da dose conforme a necessidade individual de cada paciente, sem o risco de efeitos colaterais graves, especialmente sobre a função renal.


Constituem-se em indivíduos com maior risco deficiência de vitamina D e maior risco se sofrerem complicações graves decorrentes dessa alteração metabólica, aquelas pessoas [1] com idade avançada (a pele de um indivíduo idoso de 70 anos produz apenas um quarto da quantidade de vitamina D produzida por um jovem de 20 anos de idade); [2] com sobre-peso (a gordura acumulada sob a pele sequestra a vitamina D da circulação; em geral a necessidade de vitamina D nesses indivíduos é duplicada em relação a uma pessoa com peso normal para a mesma estatura); [3] com pele escura (a melanina reduz a absorção dos raios solares matinais produtores de vitamina D); [4] que trabalham ou estudam ou exercem suas atividades rotineiras exclusivamente em ambientes confinados, isolados da luz solar da manhã ou do final da tarde; [5] que, mal orientados, utilizam filtros solares de forma indiscriminada, em horários (tais como no período inicial da manhã) em que a exposição solar é absolutamente necessária para a abundante produção de vitamina D na pele descoberta e para preservação da saúde (fator de proteção solar de nível 8 reduz em 90% a produção de vitamina D; o uso de fator de proteção de nível 15 reduz em 99% essa produção); [6] que vivem em localidades mais distantes da linha do Equador, onde a radiação solar é limitada por invernos mais longos, dias mais curtos, e são utilizadas roupas que cobrem uma maior extensão de pele para proteção contra o frio.


É importante que se enfatize, no entanto, que mesmo em localidades próximas do Equador, o problema já se tornou muito similar, devido [1] à ampliação da malha viária de metrô com estacionamentos cobertos próprios, e ocasionalmente com acesso direto ao interior de centros comerciais, [2] à construção de um número crescente de centros comerciais (“shopping centers” – onde famílias inteiras passam várias horas de seus finais de semana, em lugar de frequentarem praias, parques, zoológicos e jardins botânicos); [3] ao uso de películas protetoras nos pára-brisas e janelas dos carros, [4] à construção de estacionamentos subterrâneos sob os prédios residenciais e comerciais, com acesso direto ao elevador; [5] à adesão crescente às diversões e passatempos encontrados no próprio ambiente doméstico, proporcionadas pelos jogos eletrônicos, canais de TV a cabo, DVDs, “Blu Rays”, e pela interatividade crescente proporcionada pela rede mundial de computadores. Pais e mães sentem-se confortáveis vendo seus filhos entretidos com essas atividades domésticas de lazer, por perceberem que assim se mantém distantes da violência urbana.

Enquanto isso o percentual de crianças com diabete do tipo I cresce 6% ao ano na Europa; todas essas características da vida urbana moderna permitem ao indivíduo contemporâneo deslocar-se e realizar praticamente qualquer atividade no meio urbano com exposição solar virtualmente nula.Evidencia-se que três fatores, atuando em conjunto, contribuem para um efeito desastroso para a saúde pública e para os gastos públicos e privados nesse setor e no setor previdenciário: [1] o grande percentual de indivíduos afetados, especialmente na população urbana; [2] o grande número de doenças e distúrbios provocados ou facilitados pela deficiência de um hormônio que potencialmente participa da regulação de 229 funções biológicas no organismo humano; [3] à desinformação da maior parte da classe médica, que há muitas décadas segue temerosa de administrar pela via oral (preventiva ou terapeuticamente, a indivíduos adultos) doses absolutamente fisiológicas, tais como 10.000 UI por dia, que são produzidas por pessoas de pele clara durante meros 20 minutos de exposição ao sol da manhã, sem protetor solar. Tal indivíduo teria de ingerir 100 copos de leite para inteirar a mesma quantidade de vitamina D, que é também 50 vezes superior à dose diária de 200 UI (a mais comumente prescrita por ser erroneamente divulgada como “recomendada”).

Assim, evidencia-se como absolutamente vital e urgente uma mudança de paradigma em relação ao potencial preventivo e terapêutico proporcionado por doses bem mais elevadas de colecalciferol do que aquelas correntemente utilizadas, especialmente em pacientes que, por motivos próprios de sua condição clínica, têm limitações para expor-se ao sol, tal como os portadores de lúpus (pela possibilidade de piora das lesões de pele induzida pelos raios UV), vitiligo (pela facilidade de dano à pele) e esclerose múltipla (pela intolerância ao calor). Ao serem aconselhados a evitarem a exposição solar, têm agravada a deficiência de vitamina D, e em consequência, agrava-se a doença autoimunitária.


É profundamente lamentável que milhares de pessoas jovens, em todo o Brasil, portadoras de esclerose múltipla, estejam tornando-se cegas e paraplégicas apenas por falta de uma substância que poderia ser administrada sob a forma de gotas, em uma única dose diária, o que lhes devolveria a perspectiva certa de uma vida normal.Não há justificativa para não corrigir-se qualquer alteração ou deficiência metabólica que possa ser corrigida, mesmo na ausência de sinais clínicos detectáveis de possíveis consequências danosas à saúde. Fazê-lo é obrigação! Não fazê-lo pode ser encarado como negligência ou resultado de desinformação. O médico não pode deixar sob risco a saúde do paciente que o procura, mesmo para prevenção. Prevenção é e será sempre a melhor abordagem, seja de forma individualizada, ou como política governamental de saúde pública.

O que dizer do caso do paciente que já é portador de uma doença autoimunitária, tal como a esclerose múltipla, cuja alta frequência de surtos e elevada severidade das sequelas neurológicas (paraplegia, cegueira) correlaciona-se com os níveis circulantes mais baixos de vitamina D (referência 5)? Como justificar-se o hábito de sequer solicitar-se a medida das concentrações de 25(OH)D3 no paciente portador, quanto mais de não administrar-se doses realisticamente capazes de corrigir a deficiência que, segundo a literatura especializada, é praticamente certa? Como aceitar-se a passividade frente a um distúrbio metabólico de fácil correção, quanto a administração de doses muito mais elevadas (do que aquelas irrisórias e injustificadamente chamadas de “recomendadas”) que levam à redução das lesões ativas (referência 6) e foram demonstradas serem perfeitamente seguras (referências 6 e 7)? Como aceitar tal passividade, sabendo-se que já em 1986 (há 25 anos) demonstrou-se que doses bem mais modestas (8 vezes inferiores àquelas demonstradas como seguras, mas ainda assim 25 vezes superiores às “recomendadas” pelo comportamento terapêutico convencional) mostraram-se capazes de reduzir em mais de 50% a frequência de surtos em portadores de esclerose múltipla (referência 8)? Qual a justificativa para que qualquer médico, mesmo em face desses dados, simplesmente volte as costas a essa questão e deixe o paciente (cuja saúde encontra-se sob sua responsabilidade profissional) com uma deficiência metabólica cuja correção é, por si mesma (independentemente da presença de qualquer doença), ética e tecnicamente obrigatória, e que poderia poupar seu paciente portador de esclerose múltipla do sofrimento intenso e permanente provocado por sequelas graves, irreversíveis e incapacitantes, tais como a cegueira e a paraplegia?


Como propor estudos “controlados” para a correção de qualquer hipovitaminose (não somente a hipovitaminose D), quando tais estudos são eticamente inviáveis, da mesma forma como não se pode administrar placebos para crianças diabéticas (deficientes em insulina) para “assegurar-se” de que a eficiência da administração de insulina seja “cientificamente” comprovada? O mesmo ocorre para a deficiência de vitaminas como o ácido fólico em gestantes. Seria ético verificar-se “de forma controlada” que um número muito maior de crianças nasceram com anencefalia ou outras malformações congênitas no “grupo placebo”? Tais estudos nunca foram e jamais serão feitos. Seria correto, então, não administrar-se o ácido fólico às gestantes portadoras de níveis baixos desse micronutriente, sob a justificativa de que “não existem estudos controlados”?


Evidentemente, ao contrário do estudo da efetividade de drogas alopáticas, a avaliação da eficiência da correção de qualquer distúrbio metabólico não pode ser “controlada” com o uso de placebo. A inexistência de tais estudos não pode justificar a não correção de qualquer alteração metabólica, pois se constitui em argumento falacioso identificado em estudos de lógica e estatística (referência 9).

É pensamento compartilhado por todos os membros da diretoria do Instituto de Autoimunidade, que os sentimentos e percepções que devem nortear o tratamento dos pacientes afetados por essas e outras doenças são o senso humanitário, a capacidade de empatia e a genuína vontade de auxiliar, ajudar, servir, minorar o sofrimento e restabelecer a saúde. Nesse sentido, impõe-se radical mudança de paradigma de investigação e tratamento, abandonando-se o foco no exclusivo uso crônico de drogas que, por seus efeitos colaterais, deterioram a qualidade de vida do paciente, além de colocarem em risco sua integridade física e sua vida, sem perspectiva de uma solução em qualquer prazo. Como novo paradigma a ser buscado, qualquer padrão de comportamento, alteração ou distúrbio metabólico que potencialmente contribua para o desencadeamento, sustentação e/ou agravamento da doença deve ser identificado e corrigido, sempre que essa correção for possível, com o objetivo de alcançar o desaparecimento dos sintomas, a solução do problema e a libertação do uso crônico de medicamentos.

Cícero Galli Coimbra
Médico Internista e Neurologista
Professor Associado Livre-Docente da Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Presidente do Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento de Autoimunidade

 

REFERÊNCIAS:

1 – Ramagopalan, S.V., Heger, A., Berlanga, A.J., Maugeri, N.J.,Lincoln, M.R., Burrell, A., Handunnetthi, L., Handel, A.E., Disanto,G., Orton, S.M., Watson, C.T., Morahan, J.M., Giovannoni, G., Ponting,C.P., Ebers, G.C., Knight, J.C. A ChIP-seq defined genome-wide map ofvitamin D receptor binding: associations with disease and evolution.Genome research 2010; 20:1352-1360. – http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2945184/

2 – Unger, M.D., Cuppari, L., Titan, S.M., Magalhaes, M.C., Sassaki,A.L., dos Reis, L.M., Jorgetti, V., Moyses, R.M. Vitamin D status in asunny country: where has the sun gone? Clinical nutrition 2010; 29,784-788 – http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261561410001111

3 – Pani, M.A., Regulla, K., Segni, M., Krause, M., Hofmann, S.,Hufner, M., Herwig, J., Pasquino, A.M., Usadel, K.H., Badenhoop, K.Vitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP1alpha) polymorphism in Graves’disease, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and type 1 diabetes mellitus.European Journal of Endocrinology 2002; 146:777-781.
http://eje-online.org/content/146/6/777.long

4 – Sundqvist, E., Baarnhielm, M., Alfredsson, L., Hillert, J., Olsson,T., Kockum, I. Confirmation of association between multiple sclerosisand CYP27B1. European journal of human genetics : European Journal ofHuman Genetics 2010; 18:1349-1352. – http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v18/n12/full/ejhg2010113a.html

5 – Smolders, J., Menheere, P., Kessels, A., Damoiseaux, J., Hupperts,R. Association of vitamin D metabolite levels with relapse rate and disability in multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis 2008; http://msj.sagepub.com/content/14/9/1220

6 – Kimball, S.M., Ursell, M.R., O’Connor, P., Vieth, R. Safety ofvitamin D3 in adults with multiple sclerosis. American Journal ofClinical Nutrition 2007; 86:645-651. – http://www.ajcn.org/content/86/3/645.long

7 – Garland, C.F., French, C.B., Baggerly, L.L., Heaney, R.P. Vitamin Dsupplement doses and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the range associatedwith cancer prevention. Anticancer Research 2011; 31:607-11- http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21378345?dopt=Abstract

8 – Goldberg, P., Fleming, M.C., Picard, E.H. Multiple sclerosis: decreased relapse rate through dietary supplementation with calcium, magnesium and vitamin D. Medical hypotheses 1986; 21: 193-200. – http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0306987786900101

9 – Altman, D.G., Bland, J.M.. Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. British Medical Journal 1995; 311:485. – http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2550545/

http://www.institutodeautoimunidade.org.br/novo-paradigma.html

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conheça Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento da Autoimunidade

Instituto de Investigação e Tratamento da Autoimunidade

http://www.institutodeautoimunidade.org.br/

 
 A Luz que faltava no Brasil

Relatos espontâneos de portadores de doenças autoimunitárias, beneficiados pelo protocolo de tratamento fundamentado na administração de colecalciferol (Vitamina D), geraram grande repercussão nas comunidades sociais da rede mundial de computadores.Este fato suscitou na demanda pela extensão dos mesmos benefícios a outros pacientes, especialmente os mais carentes.

 

 

O filme “Vitamina D — Por uma outra terapia”, produzido entre 2011 e 2012, conta a história de seis portadores de doenças autoimunitárias

O filme “Vitamina D Por uma outra terapia”

com Dr. Cícero Galli Coimbra

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=erAgu1XcY-U&feature=share

O filme “Vitamina D — Por uma outra terapia”, produzido entre 2011 e 2012, conta a história de seis portadores de doenças autoimunitárias

informações:
vitaminadporumaoutraterapia.wordpress.com

(a maioria com esclerose múltipla) que tiveram suas vidas transformadas por um tratamento à base de vitamina D.

Com direção de Daniel Cunha, jornalista, portador de esclerose múltipla e beneficiário do mesmo tratamento, o documentário surgiu da necessidade de compartilhar esse conhecimento com outros portadores

 

Créditos:

Direção e montagem: Daniel Cunha
Produção e direção de arte: Tunay Canepari
Fotografia e câmeras: Luiz Pires
Locução: Geraldo Barreto
Ilustração: Catarina Bessell
Trilha sonora original: Emiliano Cosacov
Correção de cor: Alexandre Cristófaro
Edição de áudio: Guilherme Vorhaas

Imagens Surf: Joyce Grisotto
Imagens Estúdio: Pablo Moreno (Estúdio 12×8)

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